Ghost Words That Are Haunting The Dictionary
Boo! It's a ghost ... word
Have you ever heard of the term ghost word ? It doesn’t have a direct connection to Halloween . . . although that’s a good guess. No, a ghost word is a word that “has come into existence by error rather than by normal linguistic transmission, as through the mistaken reading of a manuscript, a scribal error, or a misprint.” And, we’ve collected our favorite ghost words that scare us daily …
WATCH: What Scares A Dictionary? Ghost Words!
Dord is a truly great ghost word if there ever was one. The original Webster’s New International Dictionary listing was like this: D or d . This was an abbreviation for “density in physics or chemistry.” Then, it seems that in 1931, a chemistry editor sent in a slip that read D or d, cont./density . The point was to add density to the list of words that the letter D can abbreviate.
And, it seems these slips used hyphens to separate letters. So, it read D-or-d . Whoever was inputting this entry viewed it as a word ( dord) rather than seeing it as a choice, D or d . It made it into the dictionary in 1934 and the error was discovered five years later … yet it continues to appear.
We all know what the word tweed means—”a coarse wool cloth in a variety of weaves and colors.” My, that’s a spiffy tweed jacket you’re wearing today!
But, the word may have come from a misuse of the Scottish word tweel , which was how they pronounced the word twill (“a fabric constructed of twill weave”). Eventually, tweed and twill became synonymous as it gained the meaning we all know today.
This one goes way back—even farther back than the usual “back in the day.”
It seems there was a Roman philosopher by the name of Cicero, who died in 43 BC. He wrote two “Letters to Atticus,” and they contained the word sittybas (or maybe sittubas) . There’s some debate on that, it seems. This was a Greek word meaning a “ label for a papyrus roll.”
However, it’s suspected that one printing of this work misspelled it as syllabus . The spelling stuck, and so it began to also mean “a label for a papyrus roll” as well. This morphed into its current meaning: (“an outline or other brief statement of the main points of a discourse, the subjects of a course of lectures, the contents of a curriculum, etc.”) in the mid-1600s.
Cairbow slipped into an early 20th-century proof of the Oxford English Dictionary in an example sentence for the word glare : “It (the Cairbow) then suddenly squats upon its haunches, and slides along the glare-ice.” But, what is a Cairbow ? Some rare creature that lives in the caves of the North Pole? Sounds fierce!
Nope, just a mistake—they meant to say caribou , as in “a really big deer.”
Somehow, someway, back in 1587, abacot made it into the second edition of Holinshed’s Chronicles , a book on British history. About 300 years later, the word was discovered by the editor of the Oxford English Dictionary as a typo of the word bycoket , which is “a cap or head-dress.”
That’s a really big typo . . . .
You might expect this one has to do with your mom. Did she do something silly, like send you a Halloween card for your birthday? Oh, that’s just some momblishness .
Nope, nothing to do with dear old mom. The Oxford English Dictionary cites this as “explained as: muttering talk.” It does sound like mumble , too.
The OED puts it down to “scribal error” of “the plural of ‘ne-moubliemie,’ French for the forget-me-not flower.”
Sometimes, words aren’t the only fictional things that show up in historical and educational works of information. In 1975, the New Columbia Encyclopedia included an entry on one Lillian Virginia Mountweazel, supposedly an American fountain designer who did a photo book about rural American mailboxes. The encyclopedia wrote that sadly, she died in an explosion while working on a piece for Combustibles magazine. (This should have been a tip-off to some.)
Miss Lillian was a totally fictional creation, yet she may show up in other encyclopedias and reference books. This was proof that others “borrowed” from New Columbia. Ahem.
This word appeared (or mistakenly appeared, perhaps?) in the Edinburgh Review , in the context of a sentence referring to Hindus stabbing their hands with kimes . Hm, is that going to leave a mark?
While the natural assumption would be that a kime is some sinister torture device, it was just a typo for the word knives .
There is such a thing as morse code , of course. And, we define morse itself as “a clasp or brooch used to fasten a cape in the front.” However, in this instance, morse was a misinterpretation of the common word nurse .
Sir Walter Scott’s 1821 book The Monastery contained the sentence, “‘Dost thou so soon morse thoughts of slaughter?'” It was supposed to say nurse , as in “to nurture” or “to care for.”
Phantomnation appeared in the 1864 edition of Webster’s. They called it a rare word meaning “‘the appearance of a phantom, illusion,” and attributed it to the poet Alexander Pope in his translation of The Odyssey , which contained the line “all the phantom nations of the dead.”
A man named Richard Paul Jodrell made a habit of consolidating two-word phrases, and he did it to “phantom nation” for his 1820 title Philology of the English Language , which then caused it to appear in the dictionary in that form.
Can you guess the definition?
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noun as in spirit of the dead
- ethereal being
- incorporeal being
Words related to ghost are not direct synonyms, but are associated with the word ghost . Browse related words to learn more about word associations.
noun as in composer of written work
- ink slinger
- prose writer
- word slinger
verb as in create writing, artwork, or music
- coin a phrase
- fudge together
- push pencil
- put pen to paper
noun as in misconception, misbelief
- false impression
- fool's paradise
- ignis fatuus
- optical illusion
noun as in actual but not official author
noun as in illusion
- figment of imagination
- ignus fatuus
- make believe
- virtual reality
Viewing 5 / 17 related words
The expansion of ghost kitchens was well underway before the pandemic.
The spread of third-party delivery apps and ghost kitchens means that many customers largely interact with restaurants through apps, not the restaurants directly.
New “ghost kitchens,” or delivery-only restaurants capitalizing on the rise of Grubhub and UberEats, popped up, many specializing in wings.
Last year police in New York state arrested an Army drone operator and alleged Boogaloo Boi on charges that he owned an illegal ghost gun.
Group Nine has been thinking about expanding further in this direction by leveraging the ghost kitchen it launched through Thrillist back in December.
The well, ghost or no ghost, is certainly a piece of history with a bold presence.
Now, she says, her coworkers are actively pranking each other and blaming it on the ghost.
First, the ghost of his departed partner, Jacob Marley, comes calling, his face emerging from the doorknob.
As Monday turned to Tuesday morning, five hostages had escaped and the Central Business District had turned into a ghost town.
The ghost writer in question is assumed to be one Siobhan Curham—an established author of both YA and adult fiction.
T least, thet's all I think 't wuz; though thar wuz those thet said 't wuz Claiborne's ghost.
Meanwhile Fleurette had her nourishing food, and grew more like the ghost of a lily every day.
Our poor planet will be but a silent ghost whirling on its dark path in the starlight.
For a moment there was no consciousness in their gaze; then a whimsical ghost of a smile crept about his mouth.
Now it will be as well here to inquire what good has ever resulted from this belief in what is commonly understood to be a ghost?
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On this page you'll find 44 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to ghost, such as: demon, devil, phantom, shadow, soul, and specter.
From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.
This tool helps you find words that are related to a specific word or phrase. Also check out ReverseDictionary.org and DescribingWords.io . Here are some words that are associated with ghost : . You can get the definitions of these ghost related words by clicking on them. Also check out describing words for ghost and find more words related to ghost using ReverseDictionary.org
Click words for definitions
Our algorithm is scanning multiple databases for related words. Please be patient! :)
Words Related to ghost
Below is a list of words related to ghost . You can click words for definitions. Sorry if there's a few unusual suggestions! The algorithm isn't perfect, but it does a pretty good job for common-ish words. Here's the list of words that are related to ghost :
- ghost story
- ancestor worship
- witch of endor
- demonic possession
- cultural universal
- ghost festival
- book of the dead
- books of samuel
- saul the king
- new testament
- twelve apostles
- resurrection of jesus
- gospel of luke
- walking on water
As you've probably noticed, words related to " ghost " are listed above. Hopefully the generated list of term related words above suit your needs.
P.S. There are some problems that I'm aware of, but can't currently fix (because they are out of the scope of this project). The main one is that individual words can have many different senses (meanings), so when you search for a word like mean , the engine doesn't know which definition you're referring to ("bullies are mean " vs. "what do you mean ?", etc.), so consider that your search query for words like term may be a bit ambiguous to the engine in that sense, and the related terms that are returned may reflect this. You might also be wondering: What type of word is ~term~ ?
Also check out ghost words on relatedwords.io for another source of associations.
Related Words runs on several different algorithms which compete to get their results higher in the list. One such algorithm uses word embedding to convert words into many dimensional vectors which represent their meanings. The vectors of the words in your query are compared to a huge database of of pre-computed vectors to find similar words. Another algorithm crawls through Concept Net to find words which have some meaningful relationship with your query. These algorithms, and several more, are what allows Related Words to give you... related words - rather than just direct synonyms.
As well as finding words related to other words, you can enter phrases and it should give you related words and phrases, so long as the phrase/sentence you entered isn't too long. You will probably get some weird results every now and then - that's just the nature of the engine in its current state.
Special thanks to the contributors of the open-source code that was used to bring you this list of ghost themed words: @Planeshifter , @HubSpot , Concept Net , WordNet , and @mongodb .
There is still lots of work to be done to get this to give consistently good results, but I think it's at the stage where it could be useful to people, which is why I released it.
© SimplyGhost.Com 2008 - We All Win Enterprises - All Rights Reserved
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Ghosts Vocabulary Word List (83)
Words related to ghosts.
Below is a massive list of ghosts words - that is, words related to ghosts. The top 4 are: spirits , revenant , spirit and soul . You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. The words at the top of the list are the ones most associated with ghosts, and as you go down the relatedness becomes more slight. By default, the words are sorted by relevance/relatedness, but you can also get the most common ghosts terms by using the menu below, and there's also the option to sort the words alphabetically so you can get ghosts words starting with a particular letter. You can also filter the word list so it only shows words that are also related to another word of your choosing. So for example, you could enter "spirits" and click "filter", and it'd give you words that are related to ghosts and spirits.
You can highlight the terms by the frequency with which they occur in the written English language using the menu below. The frequency data is extracted from the English Wikipedia corpus, and updated regularly. If you just care about the words' direct semantic similarity to ghosts, then there's probably no need for this.
There are already a bunch of websites on the net that help you find synonyms for various words, but only a handful that help you find related , or even loosely associated words. So although you might see some synonyms of ghosts in the list below, many of the words below will have other relationships with ghosts - you could see a word with the exact opposite meaning in the word list, for example. So it's the sort of list that would be useful for helping you build a ghosts vocabulary list, or just a general ghosts word list for whatever purpose, but it's not necessarily going to be useful if you're looking for words that mean the same thing as ghosts (though it still might be handy for that).
If you're looking for names related to ghosts (e.g. business names, or pet names), this page might help you come up with ideas. The results below obviously aren't all going to be applicable for the actual name of your pet/blog/startup/etc., but hopefully they get your mind working and help you see the links between various concepts. If your pet/blog/etc. has something to do with ghosts, then it's obviously a good idea to use concepts or words to do with ghosts.
If you don't find what you're looking for in the list below, or if there's some sort of bug and it's not displaying ghosts related words, please send me feedback using this page. Thanks for using the site - I hope it is useful to you! 🐚
- ghost story
- ancestor worship
- witch of endor
- gospel of luke
- paranormal activity
- evil spirits
- childhood memories
- fairy tales
- demonic possession
- freddy krueger
- cultural universal
- ghost festival
- grim reaper
- supernatural powers
- book of the dead
- books of samuel
- saul the king
- twelve apostles
- new testament
- resurrection of jesus
- walking on water
- apparitional experience
- ritual magic
- ghost train
- old english
- common germanic
- west germanic languages
- north germanic languages
- human death
- east germanic languages
- gothic language
- germanic paganism
- germanic mercury
- conductor of the dead
- errand ghost
- middle english
- vital principle
- dutch language
- american english
- classical mythology
- greek underworld
- scots language
- evil spirit
- j. r. r. tolkien
- haunt house
- folk religion
- vengeful spirit
- all souls' day
- burial custom
- james frazer
- the golden bough
- gothic horror
- horror fiction
- greek language
- vengeful ghost
- flying dutchman
- the rime of the ancient mariner
- ghosts in mesopotamian religions
- abrahamic religion
- hebrew bible
- ghosts in ancient egyptian culture
That's about all the ghosts related words we've got! I hope this list of ghosts terms was useful to you in some way or another. The words down here at the bottom of the list will be in some way associated with ghosts, but perhaps tenuously (if you've currenly got it sorted by relevance, that is). If you have any feedback for the site, please share it here , but please note this is only a hobby project, so I may not be able to make regular updates to the site. Have a nice day! 🐙
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Famous Females in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics You Should Know
Dry january: exploring the benefits of giving up alcohol, embracing proactivity over new year hype.
In 1886, a lexicographer named Walter Skeat first used the phrase “ghost words” to describe words that he said had “no real existence.” In other words, ghost words are words that weren’t real to begin with—they made it into the dictionary because of an error or misunderstanding.
For example, it appears that “gravy” only became a word because a 14th-century translator misread a French cookbook. (1, 2) In Old French, the word was spelled with an N: “grane” (also sometimes spelled “grain”), and it was related to the word “grain,” which according to the Oxford English Dictionary meant “anything used in cooking” at the time.
But English cookbooks translated from French in the 14th century and later nearly always have a V or a U instead of the N, leading to the word “gravy” that sounds so right to us today. Researchers believe it was simply a transcription error. If the word had been transcribed properly, we’d be having “grany” on our mashed potatoes at Thanksgiving.
In the 15th century, a misprint gave us another ghost word: “syllabus.” The Roman philosopher Cicero died in 43 BC, but his work has been read ever since. Two of his “Letters to Atticus” ( one , two ) have the word “sittybas” (or possibly “sittubas”—sources disagree). Either way, it was a Greek word meaning “a label for a book or parchment” or “title-slip,” but one printing of this work mistakenly spelled the word as “syllabus.” (3, 4)
People apparently thought “syllabus” was Latin, and the spelling stuck so well that “syllabus” took on its new meaning in the mid-1600s and now even has a fake Latin plural: “syllabi” (although “syllabuses” is also listed as an option in all the dictionaries I checked.)
Here’s a more recent misunderstanding that gave us a new word. We got the word “tweed”—a type of wool—from a misunderstanding of the Scottish word “tweel,” which was how the Scots said “twill.” That mistake may have happened because there’s a Tweed river in Scotland, so when people heard or saw “tweel,” they thought of the Tweed River; but regardless of how it happened, “tweed” became an established word for the cloth in London in the mid-1800s. (3, 5, 6)
Here’s an even more recent ghost word you may not have heard of, but it has a quirky origin: “dord.” The story goes that the original dictionary entry was “D or d” (capital “d” or lowercase “d”)—as an abbreviation for “density in physics or chemistry”—but someone who worked on the entry misread it as a word spelled d-o-r-d instead of “D or d,” and thus, the word “dord” was born in the 1934 edition of Webster’s New International Dictionary.
I like to imagine a bleary-eyed employee looking at it and thinking, “‘Dord.’ Sounds like a word to me!” but actually, when people working on entries typed out the spelling of a word, it was standard to leave a space between each letter, so it wasn’t so far fetched to think that whoever typed “D or d” had meant “D o r d” and simply forgot to put a space between the O and the R. (7)
“Dord” isn’t in dictionaries anymore though. A Merriam-Webster editor discovered the mistake, and the entry was corrected 13 years later, in 1947.
Not every non-word that ends up in a dictionary gets there by accident though. Some are intentional, such as the one that was invented by an editor at the New Oxford American Dictionary and was included in the 2001 edition to help the company track copyright violators who were lifting entries from the dictionary. If the made-up word Oxford had created appeared in another dictionary, it would be clear that it had been copied from them.
The word was “esquivalience,” which they defined as “the willful avoidance of one’s official responsibilities.” They even gave it a made-up etymology, saying it arose in the late 19th century, perhaps from the French word “esquiver” meaning “dodge” or “slink away.” (8)
Names for Intentionally Deceptive Words
Some people don’t believe that words created on purpose are true ghost words. The Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition for “ghost word” would include such words, but the entry link would not.
And there are, in fact, two other words that language geeks use to describe intentionally deceptive non-words: “mountweazel” and “nihilartikel.”
Some encyclopedias also include fake entries to catch copyright infringers, and Henry Alford, the author of a 2005 New Yorker article about “esquivalience,” chose the entry for Lillian Virginia Mountweazel in the 1975 New Columbia Encyclopedia to coin a term intentional fakes. Amusingly, the encyclopedia described the fake Ms. Mountweazel as
“a fountain designer turned photographer who was celebrated for a collection of photographs of rural American mailboxes titled ‘Flags Up!’” She was said to have been born in Bangs, Ohio, in 1942, only to die “at 31 in an explosion while on assignment for ‘Combustibles’ magazine.” (8)
You can see why Alford chose “mounteweazel” as the term to use for a fake entry.
And yes, I checked: Henry Alford is the name of a real modern writer. I wondered if that was a ruse because Henry Alford is also the name of a well-known language writer from the 1800s.
The German term “nihilartikel” seems to predate “mountweazel” by at least a year or two though as a term to describe an intentionally fake dictionary entry. It’s combination of the Latin “nihil,” meaning “nothing” and the German “Artikel,” meaning “article. I say it predates “mountweazel” by at least a year or two because its origin is a bit in dispute.
Wikipedia and Wiktionary both say it is itself a fake, citing the origin as “a fictitious March 2004 English-language Wikipedia article.” However, the site World Wide Words , which I trust more than Wikipedia says that the word has had “half a dozen appearances in German sources since 2000, more than in English,” suggesting “that it is a real, [but] rare, native German word.”
As an aside, dictionaries and encyclopedias aren’t the only reference works that include fake entries. Maps also sometimes include made-up streets or even towns that publishers can use to track copyright infringement, and these also have multiple names such as “paper towns,” “ phantom settlements ,” and “ trap streets ” since they are used to trap plagiarists.
I’ll finish with one more ghost-y word that arose from a misunderstanding: “phantomnation.”
Reading about these intentionally deceptive words and entries can start to make you paranoid, so when I saw the word “phantomnation” in a Click to check for reference video about ghost words, and I’d never seen it before, I started to wonder if I was being duped. But I wasn’t, and the story behind it is far more odd than it being merely a transcription error or an intentional ruse.
While trying to confirm that the Click to check for reference video was on the level, I found the word in Google Books from 1891 in a book titled “The Compounding of English Words: When and Why Joining or Separation is Preferable.” Yes, someone wrote a 223-page book about compound words. The author, Francis Horace Teall, seems to have strong feelings about compound words and believes that dictionaries are doing it wrong: they should be much more consistent in how they form compounds.
In one section of the book, Teall describes another author, a Mr. Jodrell, who thought that all compound words should be one continuous word, for example Jodrell wrote “marriagesettlement,” “stagegesture,” and “tapestryhanging” each as one word. No space between “tapestry” and “hanging” for example. It’s all squished together as one word: “tapestryhangning.”
Teall complains that Jodrell even did this when quoting other authors, and this is where we get to “phantomnation.” When Jodrell was quoting a line from Alexander Pope’s translation of “The Odyssey”—“all the phantom nations of the dead”—he followed his “craze for solidifying” as Jodell called it and wrote “phantomnations” as one word instead of two.
Joseph Worcester’s 1860 Dictionary of the English Language then included the word, defining it as “illusion,” and Webster’s included the same entry in 1864. Teall says that even though it meant “a multitude of spectres” in the quotation, the dictionaries interpreted it as the word “phantom” with the suffix “-ation” and an N added in to make it sound better, instead of realizing that it just came from Jodrell’s odd habit of slamming two words together,
The Oxford English Dictionary still includes “phantomnation” today but without a definition. The entry simply notes that it is a misinterpretation of “phantom nation” and includes the citations from Jodrell, Worcester, and Webster’s.
Other words that arose from errors:
abacot. A misprint of “bycoket,” a kind of cap or head-dress. It appeared in reference books for approximately 300 years before the error was discovered by James Murray, editor of the Oxford English Dictionary . (9)
cherry. According to Merriam-Webster , “The Old North French word for ‘cherry’ is ‘cherise’. English speakers heard the ‘se’ at the end of the word and assumed it was plural, ‘cherries’, and that the singular form of the word must then be ‘cherry.'”
derring-do. Chaucer wrote “in durring don that longeth to a knight” meaning “in daring to do what is proper for a knight.” The phrase was misprinted in a later work by John Lydgate as “derrynge do,” and then taken by Edmund Spenser to mean “brave actions” or “manhood and chevalrie.” Sir Walter Scott used it in Ivanhoe in the manner of Spencer, using the spelling we use today, writing, “if there be two who can do a deed of such derring-do!” (10, 11, 12)
foupe. Multiple sources say that Samuel Johnson’s 1755 dictionary had the word “foupe” when it should have been “soupe” (another word for “swoop”) because the archaic long “s” so closely resembled the letter “f.”
Imogene. The name of the character in Shakespeare’s Cymbeline is hypothesized to be a misspelling of the name Innogen.
Sane (Middle English). In Middle English, “sane” was a verb that meant “to cure” or “to heal.” A work titled Middle English Word Studies: A Word and Author Index lists a 1986 paper by Lister Matheson, and summarizes it as hypothesizing that “sane” was a misreading of the verb “save” (also spelled “saue”) that came from the Latin “sanare,” which meant “to cure” or “to heal.” (13)
- Burridge, K. Weeds in the Garden of Words . Cambridge University Press. 2005. Click to check for reference (accessed October 17, 2019).
- gravy. Oxford English Dictionary , Online Version. September 2012. Click to check for reference
- Trask, R.L. (ed.) Dictionary of Historical and Comparative Linguistics . Edinburgh University Press. 2000. this link (accessed October 17, 2019).
- syllabus. Oxford English Dictionary , Online Version. Click to check for reference
- tweed. Oxford English Dictionary , Online Version. Click to check for reference
- Harper, D. “tweed.” Online Etymology Dictionary . Click to check for reference (accessed October 17, 2019).
- Brewster, E. “Ghost Word.” Merriam-Webster website . Click to check for reference (accessed October 17, 2019).
- Alford, H. “Not a Word.” New Yorker . August 29, 2005. Click to check for reference (accessed October 17, 2019).
- Quinion, M. “Abacot.” World Wide Words . Click to check for reference
- Martin, G. “derring-do.” The Phrase Finder . Click to check for reference
- derring-do. Oxford English Dictionary , Online Version. September 2012. Click to check for reference.
- Bloomfield, L. Language . Motilal Banarsidass: India. 2005. Click to check for reference
- Sylvester, L. and Roberts, J. Middle English Word Studies: A Word and Author Index . D. S. Brewer: Cambridge. 2000. Click to check for reference
Ghost image courtesy of opens in a new window Shutterstock.
Best friend cardi image, AnaKika at Flickr. CC BY 2.0.
Mignon Fogarty is Grammar Girl and the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips. Check out her New York Times bestseller, “ opens in a new window Grammar Girl’s Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing .”
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Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller " Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing ." She is an inductee in the Podcasting Hall of Fame, and the show is a five-time winner of Best Education Podcast in the Podcast Awards. She has appeared as a guest expert on the Oprah Winfrey Show and the Today Show. Her popular LinkedIn Learning courses help people write better to communicate better. Find her on Mastodon .
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9 Fun Words for Ghosts and Goblins
: a ghost or goblin believed to portend misfortune and sometimes appearing in the shape of a large dog
Is a barghest ’s bark worse than its bite? Listen, we are but humble lexicographers and not particularly keen to find out, so we’ll stick to etymology (but if you want to go toe-to-paw with one, be our barguest: barguest is a spelling variant). Barghest is thought perhaps to have formed as a combination of the English word bar (sometimes spelled bargh ), meaning “ridge,” and ghest , an alteration of ghost .
There is a vague legend floating about the parish concerning a man who was killed somewhere near the Rushpit, and whose restless spirit “walks” in Kint’s Lane at midnight. And a barghest has been encountered, it is said, in the Green Way. For the benefit of those whose education in these matters has been neglected, it may be explained that a “barghest” is the spectre of a dog, and its appearance is a fore-runner of disaster. But let no one be alarmed. Ghosts do not hurt people in the twentieth century. — F. G. Slater, A Cheshire Parish: Being a Short History of Ince, Drawn from the Parish Records and Other Sources (G. R. Griffith Ltd., 1919)
: a specter or ghost especially in the form of an animal
Even if you’ve never heard the word before, we’re sure you’re likely familiar with the concept behind guytrash . No, we don’t mean piles of empty pizza boxes and energy drink bottles ( rim shot ) but rather a ghostly, supernatural animal. Like the ominous barghest, a guytrash can take the form of a spooky doggo, but it can assume other animal forms as well. The earliest known use of guytrash in print (spelled gytrash ) is from 1847, when none other than Charlotte Brontë included it in Jane Eyre .
There is a certain type of phantom that has a definite leaning toward the north of England. It is called a ‘ Guytrash ’, and takes the form of either a large dog or a riderless horse. — Peggy Hewitt, These Lonely Mountains: A Biography of the Brontë Moors (Springfield Books, 1985)
: a noisy usually mischievous ghost held to be responsible for unexplained noises (such as rappings)
Ghosts throughout the centuries have not only assumed various human and non-human forms, but have had different temperaments, quirks, pet peeves and pet pleasures. Poltergeists , by and large, have gotten a reputation as things that go bump in the night, clattering and clanging and, as our entry suggests, rapping (that is, knocking on something with one’s spectral knuckles, not reciting “Award Tour,” which would be pretty great). So it comes as no surprise that poltergeist translates literally from German as “knocking spirit.” The German verb poltern means "to knock,” and Geist is the German word for “spirit.”
When I get no letter from her I lift an astral letter from the pile and pretend to read it. When I walk alone in the evening she walks beside me, her ectoplasm , her poltergeist walks beside me. I've got to exorcise her somehow. — Maxwell Anderson, The Eve of St. Mark: A Play in Two Acts (Anderson House, 1942)
: the ghost of a man killed in a mine
Get a lode of this: like its fellow the poltergeist, the tommy-knocker is a noisy ghost, though one who haunts a very specific locale: mines . The term was first recorded in the late 1800s in the western United States, and is thought to have arisen from the belief that ole Tommy was responsible for the creaking of timbers late at night in the mines.
When I die (said the mining engineer) do not bury me at all; Cache me on the bottom level, with a pick beside my pall ; Leave a candlestick and matches, then cave the stopes and drifts, And I’ll be a tommy-knocker for a hundred thousand shifts. — Samuel B. Ellis, The Canadian Mining Journal , 8 Oct. 1920
: a ghost or phantom
Ghost stories are full of shades and shadows, so why not umbras? After all, the Latin word umbra literally means “shade or shadow,” and has given English a range of words. An umbrella can provide us with shade from the sun. So can an umbrageous tree. (In this case, umbrageous means “affording shade.”) Umbra itself has also been used for centuries, and today refers to dark or shady spots, such as the central dark spot of a sunspot. But umbra ’s oldest sense in English is as a synonym of ghost or phantom .
It was in many parts of Greece custom: try to place a coin in the mouth of the corpse, so that the umbra might have the means of paying the ferryman, and thus avoid becoming forever a wanderer in the marshes on the murky shores of the Acheron. After crossing the river, the umbra came to the gates of Persephone’s kingdom, where stood the triple-headed watch-dog Kerberos, who never prevented any one from going in, but never let any one out. — Daniel Quinn, Harper’s , November 1901
: a helpful goblin that does household chores at night
If your house has to be haunted, let it be so by a lubber fiend . It may be worth being creeped out in the middle of the night once in a while to wake up to clean dishes drying on the rack, fresh laundry folded nice and neat. We suppose if you leave a note asking nicely, a lubber fiend might also throw out your guytrash !
Lob Lie-by-the-fire, the Lubber-fiend, as Milton calls him—is a rough kind of Brownie or House Elf, supposed to haunt some north-country homesteads, where he does the work of the farm laborers, for no grander wages than “—to earn his cream-bowl duly set.”— Juliana Horatia Ewing, Stories by Juliana Horatia Ewing (Duffield and Company, 1920)
: a mischievous or malicious specter, goblin, or ghost
You may familiar with the word boggart from a certain children’s fantasy book (and film) series , referring to ghostly beings that take the form of someone’s deepest fear. Such boggarts are perhaps a subclass of the original boggart, with the word boggart originating in the 1500s to refer to a particularly gloomy sort of ghost. Boggart also appears to be related to the Middle English word for a scarecrow.
For an instant he heard the thread of a laugh, from the thing in the boat that he could not see. A very ancient, mischievous thing, solitary and sly, born of a magic as old as the rocks and the waves. A thing that had lived in Castle Keep for all the centuries of the MacDevon clan, and longer. The Boggart had come shopping too. — Susan Cooper The Boggart , (Margaret K. McElderry Books, 1993)
: a mischievous or malignant goblin or specter held in Irish folklore to appear in the form of a horse and to haunt bogs and marshes
Pooka comes from the Irish Gaelic word pūca , and may also be related to the English word Puck , also known as Robin Goodfellow , a mischievous sprite of English folklore who influenced the character of Puck in Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream .
It being a November spirit, however, tells in favour of the Pooka, for November-day is sacred to the Pooka. … He has many shapes—is now a horse, now an ass, now a bull, now a goat, now an eagle. Like all spirits, he is only half in the world of form. — W. B. Yeats, Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry (Walter Scott, 1888)
: a friendly goblin or brownie of Scandinavian folklore that frequents farm buildings
Like the lubber fiend , the nisse loves tidying up and, according to the respective quotations for both goblins in this article, cream. Unlike the lubber fiend, however, the nisse prefers hanging out in farm buildings. To each their own! The important thing is that the chores are done, so you can put your feet up. Interestingly, nisse is an alteration of Nils , aka Saint Nicholas.
Only the tiny manikin called nisse still makes his home in the barns throughout Norway. He is a harmless creature, dressed in red blouse and pantaloons and wearing a red cap. A mischievous fellow loving horseplay, he upsets the milk pails in the cow barn and causes other troubles on the farm unless he is well fed. Consequently, the farmer must share his Christmas Eve dinner with this manikin, placing cream porridge out in the barn. The next morning the bowl is empty proof of the presence of these manikins unless one should happen to quiz the cat or dog! — Axel H. Oxholm, National Geographic , April 1939
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Jeffrey Epstein contact names revealed in unsealed documents. Here are key takeaways from the files.
By Cara Tabachnick, Allison Elyse Gualtieri
Updated on: January 5, 2024 / 2:46 PM EST / CBS News
Documents that include the names of more than 100 people connected to Jeffrey Epstein , including business associates and accusers, among others, have now been made public, following a federal judge's December ruling that the information be unsealed .
More than 900 pages of mostly unredacted documents were released Wednesday, Jan. 3. A second batch of documents was released Thursday, Jan. 4, and a third batch the day after that .
Much of the information has been previously reported, and many of those whose names are mentioned are not accused of any wrongdoing.
Though the unsealed court documents don't contain an actual list of associates, the names were expected to include some that also appeared on the flight logs of Epstein's private jet, nicknamed the "Lolita Express," which he often used to fly to his private island in the Caribbean. Those manifests and other documents, such as his private calendar, had previously been made public, including as part of legal proceedings or public records requests. Many of those who had business or social ties with Epstein, a convicted sex offender, have denied any misconduct or involvement in his activities.
The release of the names stems from a now-settled defamation lawsuit brought in 2015 by Virginia Giuffre, who accused British socialite Ghislaine Maxwell of enabling her abuse by Epstein.
Maxwell was found guilty by a New York jury in 2021 on conspiracy and trafficking charges related to Epstein, her longtime friend and sometime romantic partner, and her role for a decade in the abuse of underage girls.
What is in the Jeffrey Epstein-related court documents?
Court documents list 184 "J. Does," starting at J. Doe #3 through J. Doe #187. Some names are repeated twice. A small number are the names of minors or sexual assault victims, which the judge specified won't be released.
According to a court record released Jan. 3, documents for two Does — 107 and 110 — will not be immediately released. One was granted an extension until Jan. 22 for her appeal about the release and the other's appeal is still under review.
In many cases, the names in the documents "really are of innocent people. It's people who may have been employed, it's people who may have gone to dinner or to a cocktail party at Jeffrey Epstein's home," said CBS News legal analyst Rikki Klieman. "It is not necessarily naming people who have engaged in actions that were anything like the deplorable actions of Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell."
One of the documents released Thursday includes a lengthy list of names of people Giuffre's attorneys wanted to depose in her lawsuit against Maxwell.
The documents released by the court mention some well-known figures whose contacts with Epstein have been reported in the past, such as Britain's Prince Andrew . The prince settled a lawsuit in 2022 with Virginia Giuffre, who accused him and Epstein of abusing her as a teen, an accusation Andrew denied. In a court filing at the time, his attorneys said, "Prince Andrew regrets his association with Epstein, and commends the bravery of Ms. Giuffre and other survivors in standing up for themselves and others."
A deposition from Johanna Sjoberg in the suit includes previous accusations alleging she was groped by Prince Andrew in 2001, when she was 21. BBC News reports Buckingham Palace previously called her allegations "categorically untrue." The newly released documents include questions to Maxwell about Sjoberg.
Bill Clinton, also among the people whose names appear in the documents, had allegedly been described by Epstein as "a good friend," one Epstein accuser recounted in 2019. The former president's name had also appeared on manifests for the private jet, on which he said he had taken four trips "in connection with the work of the Clinton Foundation." He has not been accused of wrongdoing. A spokesperson told CBS News it's been nearly 20 years since Clinton last had contact with Epstein, and referred CBS News to a 2019 statement denying Clinton had any knowledge of what he called Epstein's "terrible crimes."
Clinton's name also came up in Sjoberg's deposition. She did not accuse him of any wrongdoing, but said that Epstein told her "one time that Clinton likes them young, referring to girls."
In another of the documents, Maxwell testifies that Clinton never had a meal on Epstein's island and that she does not know how many times Clinton flew on Epstein's plane.
In the filing, Maxwell's team attempts to debunk an article by journalist Sharon Churcher of the Daily Mail, who described a dinner on Epstein's Little St. James island allegedly attended by Clinton "shortly after he left office." Maxwell's team claims, "Former FBI Director Louis Freeh submitted a report wherein he concluded that President Clinton 'did not, in fact travel to, nor was he present on, Little St. James Island between January 1, 2001 and January 1, 2003'," and goes on to say Secret Service assigned to the former president would have been required to file travel logs.
Also named in the documents is Sarah Kellen, a former Epstein employee who has been accused by one adult victim of knowingly scheduling her flights and appointments with the financier and Maxwell.
Kellen's spokesperson had said in a 2020 statement to CBS News that Kellen scheduled those appointments at the direction of Epstein and Maxwell, and was herself "sexually" and "psychologically" abused by Epstein "for years." The statement noted Kellen "deeply regrets that she had any part in it."
What happened in the Jeffrey Epstein case?
Epstein was accused of sexually assaulting numerous teenage girls, some of them as young as 14 years old, according to prosecutors. Over many years, he allegedly exploited a vast network of underage girls for sex at his homes in Manhattan ; Palm Beach, Florida; and his private island near St. Thomas.
Epstein had pleaded not guilty to charges brought in 2019 by federal prosecutors in New York of sex trafficking conspiracy and one count of sex trafficking with underage girls. His death in prison before facing trial was ruled a suicide .
Epstein had cut a deal with federal prosecutors in Florida in 2008, reaching a non-prosecution agreement on allegations he sexually abused underage girls, in return for pleading guilty to lesser state charges and serving 13 months in jail, much of the time on work release. He also had to pay settlements to victims and register as a sex offender.
That agreement, which had not been disclosed to his victims, was under investigation at the time of his death .
Among the documents released Thursday is a 2016 deposition from Joseph Recarey, a former detective with the Palm Beach Police Department who led the investigation into allegations against Epstein of sex abuse and trafficking that culminated in the 2008 plea deal.
In the deposition, Recarey states that he interviewed around 30 girls who were either asked to or gave massages at Epstein's home.
"When they went to perform a massage, it was for sexual gratification," Recarey testified. And of the 30-33 young women he interviewed, he said, only one, whom he described as "older," had massage experience, and "the majority were under" 18. Some told him they were recruited with the prospect of becoming a model for Victoria's Secret, Recarey said. He also said the young women told him they were offered money to recruit more girls. The 18-page released deposition has large gaps where pages were not included.
Who else's names are among those released in the Epstein-related documents?
A name's inclusion in the documents does not indicate the person has committed or has been accused of any wrongdoing. In addition, some of the people whose names appear are witnesses who were staff members, provided medical care or were in law enforcement, for example.
- Juan Alessi and Alfredo Rodriguez : Alessi , a longtime manager of Epstein's Palm Beach estate, and Rodriguez, his former butler who died in 2015, are both named in the documents as having offered testimony.
- Jean-Luc Brunel : A onetime close friend of Epstein, Brunel was found dead in a French jail in 2022 while being investigated by that country's authorities. He was accused of helping procure women and underage girls for Epstein and was also alleged to have raped and assaulted women he knew from the modeling world. In the documents, one witness mentioned in a deposition asking him for a job, and several others were asked about him.
- Bill Richardson: The former governor of New Mexico, Richardson died in September. He had been previously reported to have visited Epstein's sprawling Zorro Ranch in New Mexico at least once. Richardson denied accusations made by Giuffre, who in a previously unsealed deposition said that she was directed to have sex with him. He called the accusation "completely false" and said he had never met Giuffre.
- David Copperfield: In her deposition, Johanna Sjoberg said she had dinner with magician David Copperfield at Epstein's home. Copperfield is not accused of any wrongdoing. Sjoberg said Copperfield asked her "if I was aware that girls were getting paid to find other girls," but testified he told her no specifics about that.
- Donald Trump : A witness said in a deposition that Epstein mentioned calling Trump and said the group would go to his casino when a storm forced his jet to land in Atlantic City during a 2001 trip. The witness was asked if she gave Trump a massage, but said no. Newsweek reported a Trump spokesperson said claims regarding Trump's relationship with Epstein were "thoroughly debunked." Trump said in 2018 that he knew Epstein "like everybody in Palm Beach knew him. … He was a fixture in Palm Beach." Trump said at the time, "I had a falling out with him a long time ago. I don't think I've spoken to him for 15 years. I wasn't a fan."
- Alan Dershowitz : Attorney Alan Dershowitz defended Epstein in the 2008 criminal case . In one of the documents, lawyers discuss sworn testimony by two household employees, one of whom said Dershowitz visited Epstein's Florida mansion "pretty often" and allegedly got massages while he was there. According to the court document, the other employee testified Dershowitz visited Epstein's home without his family when young girls were present. Dershowitz has previously denied wrongdoing. Ahead of the documents' release, Dershowitz warned against inferring anything about their contents in a livestream on his personal YouTube channel Tuesday, saying "the important thing is not to assume guilt by association or guilt by accusation." He said in the half-hour livestream that, as Epstein's lawyer, he had been on the plane many times and he had been to the island once, with his wife and daughter, when no young people were present.
- Michael Jackson : In a deposition released Jan. 3, Sjoberg is asked if she's met anyone famous when she was with Epstein, and she said she met Michael Jackson at Epstein's house in Palm Beach. She said she did not give him a massage and did not accuse him of any wrongdoing.
- Ghislaine Maxwell
- Jeffrey Epstein
Cara Tabachnick is a news editor and journalist at CBSNews.com. Cara began her career on the crime beat at Newsday. She has written for Marie Claire, The Washington Post and The Wall Street Journal. She reports on justice and human rights issues. Contact her at [email protected]
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Rayner Pike, beloved Associated Press journalist known for his wit and way with words, dies at 90
This 1991 photo provided by his daughter Leah Pike, shows retired Associated Press reporter Rayner Pike, left, during an encounter with former New York Governor Mario Cuomo. Pike, who calmly contributed his encyclopedic knowledge of news and crafty writing skills on deadline to some of New York City’s biggest stories for over four decades, has died. He was 90. Surrounded by family at the end, his Dec. 26, 2023, death at home in Arlington, Mass., set off a wave of tributes from former co-workers. (AP Photo)
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ARLINGTON, Mass. (AP) — Rayner Pike, a retired reporter for The Associated Press who contributed his encyclopedic knowledge of news and crafty writing skills to some of New York City’s biggest stories for over four decades, has died. He was 90.
Surrounded by family at the end, his Dec. 26 death at home in Arlington, Massachusetts, set off a wave of tributes from former co-workers.
For a 1996 story challenging city-provided crowd estimates, he paced out a parade route on foot — “literally shoe-leather journalism,” New York City bureau colleague Kiley Armstrong recalled.
The memorable lead that followed: “Only a grinch cavils when, in a burst of hometown boosterism, the mayor of New York says with a straight face that 3.5 million people turned out for the Yankees’ ticker-tape parade.”
Pike worked at the AP for 44 years, from 1954 to 1998, mostly in New York City — yet he was famously reluctant to take a byline, colleagues said. He also taught journalism at Rutgers University from 1983 to 1986.
“He was smart and wry,” former colleague Beth Harpaz said. “He seemed crusty on the outside but was really quite sweet, a super-fast and trustworthy writer who just had the whole 20th century history of New York City in his head (or so it seemed — we didn’t have Google in those days — we just asked Ray).”
Pike was on duty in the New York City bureau when word came that notorious mobster John Gotti had been acquitted for a second time. It was then, colleagues said, that he coined the nickname “Teflon Don.”
“He chuckled and it just tumbled out of his mouth, ‘He’s the Teflon Don!’” Harpaz said.
Pat Milton, a senior producer at CBS News, said Pike was unflappable whenever a chaotic news story broke and he was the person that reporters in the field hoped would answer the phone when they needed to deliver notes.
“He was a real intellectual,” Milton said. “He knew what he was doing. He got it right. He was very meticulous. He was excellent, but he wasn’t a rah, rah-type person. He wasn’t somebody who promoted himself.”
Pike’s wife of 59 years, Nancy, recalled that he wrote “perfect notes to people” and could bring to life a greeting card with his command of the language.
Daughter Leah Pike recounted a $1 bet he made — and won — with then-Gov. Mario Cuomo over the grammatical difference between a simile and metaphor.
“The chance to be playful with a governor may be as rare as hens’ teeth (simile) in some parts, but not so in New York, where the governor is a brick (metaphor),” Pike wrote to Cuomo afterward.
Rick Hampson, another former AP colleague in the New York bureau, said he found it interesting that Pike’s father was a firefighter because Pike “always seemed like a journalistic firefighter in the New York bureau — ready for the alarm.”
He added in a Facebook thread: “While some artistes among us might sometimes have regretted the intrusions of the breaking news that paid our salaries, Ray had an enormous capacity not only to write quickly but to think quickly under enormous pressure on such occasions. And, as others have said, just the salt of the earth.”
This story corrects the date of publication for a story Rayner Pike wrote about crowd-size estimates. The story was published in 1996, not 1986.
Jeffrey Epstein list: Whose names are on the newly unsealed documents?
The documents have unearthed sexual assault allegations against Prince Andrew. Donald Trump and Bill Clinton are also mentioned.
About 950 pages of court documents identifying associates of financier and sex offender Jeffrey Epstein were made public on Wednesday.
What is the Jeffrey Epstein list?
Included in the unsealed papers are the names of about 150 Epstein associates . The documents were filed as part of Virginia Giuffre’s 2015 defamation lawsuit against Ghislaine Maxwell, Epstein’s co-conspirator in his sexual abuse scheme. Maxwell was sentenced to 20 years in prison in 2022. Epstein died by suicide in 2019 while awaiting sex trafficking charges .
Initial tranche of nearly 950 epstein court documents released, names linked to jeffrey epstein set to be made public: all you need to know, ‘negligence, misconduct’ led to epstein jail suicide: watchdog, jpmorgan ignored epstein’s ‘nymphettes,’ us virgin islands says.
Giuffre is one of the women who sued Epstein for abusing them at his homes in Florida, New York, the United States Virgin Islands and New Mexico. She said she was pressured into having sex with men in Epstein’s social orbit.
Other documents were unsealed by the court from 2019 to 2022.
Last month, a judge listed in a 50-page document about 180 people – under pseudonyms – ordering that their identities be made public within 14 days of the order. Some individuals have objected to the disclosure of their identities in the case.
The inclusion of a name on the list does not indicate there are any allegations against the individual.
Here is a closer look at some of the names in the recent documents:
The documents unsealed on Wednesday have revealed sexual assault allegations against the British royal.
Johanna Sjoberg, who is one of the many women who have accused Epstein of sexual abuse, said Andrew put his hand on her breast in Epstein’s Manhattan townhouse in 2001.
This was while he was taking a photo with Sjoberg and Giuffre. Maxwell and Epstein were present while this photo was taken. Sjoberg said the photo also included a puppet that said “Prince Andrew” on it.
The incident, which has been previously reported by other media outlets and which Andrew has denied, was in an initial trove of previously redacted documents that otherwise revealed few new details about the extent of Epstein’s alleged sex trafficking activities.
Sjoberg was recruited to work for Epstein by Maxwell, who had been his girlfriend in the early 1990s before they became professional collaborators and accomplices in sex crimes for almost three decades.
While Sjoberg was hired as an assistant when she was a 20-year-old college student, she was quickly turned into a massage therapist and was sexually coerced while she worked for Maxwell and Epstein from 2001 to 2006.
Giuffre, now 38, accused Andrew of sexually abusing her two decades ago when she was 17, an allegation the prince called baseless. The case was settled in 2022 .
According to the documents, Sjoberg said she witnessed Giuffre, then 17, in Epstein’s New York mansion with Andrew, Epstein and Maxwell. She also said she believes what Giuffre has said about Andrew and Epstein sexually abusing her.
Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz is well-known for his work in US criminal law. The documents pertaining to him include allegations made by an unnamed woman, Jane Doe #3.
Jane Doe #3 said Epstein “required” her to have sexual relations with Dershowitz on multiple occasions when she was a minor.
Dershowitz also played a significant role in negotiating an agreement that provided immunity from federal prosecution in the Southern District of Florida not only for Epstein but also for “any potential co-conspirators of Epstein”, the documents say.
Epstein’s housekeeper Juan Alessi testified that Dershowitz would often visit Epstein’s Florida mansion to get massages.
Another one of Epstein’s household employees, Alfredo Rodriquez, said the lawyer would be present at Epstein’s residence without his family and in the presence of girls.
Dershowitz said in an interview with Fox News on Wednesday that Jane Doe #3 misidentified him, and he denied ever meeting her. He suggested he was the victim of the MeToo movement’s “hypocrisy”, accusing “radical feminists” of focusing on Epstein and his associates while not “condemning Hamas”, the Palestinian armed group.
Jean-Luc Brunel was a French model scout who was awaiting trial on charges that he raped underage girls when he died by suicide in a Paris jail in 2022.
Giuffre was among the women who had accused Brunel of sexual abuse. She said Maxwell sent her to many places to have sex with Brunel. The documents also say Brunel would exploit underage girls from disadvantaged backgrounds by offering them modelling jobs but would then bring them to the US and “farm them out to his friends, especially Epstein”.
According to the documents, Jane Doe #3 accused Epstein of trafficking her to Brunel, who was Epstein’s close travel companion. She said she was also forced to watch Brunel, Maxwell and Epstein sexually assaulting underage girls.
Rolling Stone magazine published a report on Tuesday about a recent Los Angeles lawsuit in which a new woman accused Brunel of holding her hostage at a Canadian estate so she could be sexually abused by multiple men when she was 18.
Sjoberg testified to meeting American magician David Copperfield at one of Epstein’s houses. She added that she observed him to be a friend of Epstein’s. She also recalled a girl at that dinner who she thought looked like she was of high-school age.
Sjoberg said Copperfield asked her if she knew that “girls were getting paid to find other girls”, referring to the recruitment of women by Epstein and Maxwell as “massage therapists”.
Former US President Bill Clinton is also mentioned in the court documents.
While Sjoberg said she did not meet Clinton, she testified that Epstein said to her: “Clinton likes them young,” apparently referring to girls. While Giuffre had mentioned earlier that Clinton and Epstein had a close relationship, she did not accuse him of any illegal action.
Clinton has repeatedly rejected all allegations that he was involved in anything unlawful and has said he had no interactions with Epstein for several years prior to the financier’s arrest.
Former President Donald Trump is also mentioned in the documents but not accused.
Sjoberg mentioned an incident when she left with Epstein, Giuffre and a few others on a plane from Palm Beach, Florida, in 2001.
When the plane was unable to land in New York due to a storm, they had to land in Atlantic City and went to one of Trump’s casinos. Since Giuffre was underage at the time, Sjoberg was asked if she was allowed into the casino.
“I did not know anything about how old you had to be to gamble legally. I just knew she could not get in because of an ID issue, so she and I did not gamble,” Sjoberg answered.
The late physicist’s name was mentioned in an email sent by Epstein to Maxwell in January 2015. In this email, Epstein told Maxwell to “issue a reward” to any of Giuffre’s friends, family and acquaintances to come forward and disprove Giuffre’s allegations, including against Hawking.
“the strongest is the clinton dinner, and the new version in the virgin isalnds that stven hawking partica-ted in an underage orgy,” the email said.
Sjoberg said she saw the late singer at Epstein’s residence. When she was asked if she gave him a massage, she said no.
More names to come
Not all the documents have been unsealed. The judge hasn’t set a target for when all of the documents should be made public, but more documents are expected to come out in the next few days. Lawyers for one individual, Doe 107, wrote to the judge, arguing they could face victimisation in their home country and requested time to submit grounds for their name to remain sealed.
Ghost of Tsushima 2 Needs More Samurai Batman Vibes
Posted: January 3, 2024 | Last updated: January 4, 2024
- Ghost of Tsushima's stealth gameplay allows players to be a samurai Batman, using unconventional ways to silently navigate enemies and wearing a mask to conceal Jin's identity.
- The Ghost persona in Ghost of Tsushima is comparable to Batman, as both characters operate outside the law to protect their people, and this samurai Batman concept should be emphasized in a potential sequel.
Approaching an overrun settlement in Ghost of Tsushima with players’ swords drawn, ready to cut through multiple Mongols before taking them all on in an offensive assault, is an unmatched experience. There’s something exhilarating about taking this strategy, which is what Jin Sakai is supposedly meant to do rather than take a silent approach, though players would be missing out on a huge portion of gameplay if they only ever confronted enemies this way. Brandishing Jin’s tanto and sticky bombs instead gives players a variety of options in stealth encounters, and it’s here where Ghost of Tsushima ’s mechanical diversity truly shines.
Most of all, the neat part of Ghost of Tsushima ’s stealth that sets it apart from common stealth tropes is that it lets Jin seem like a samurai Batman of sorts. He takes to the shadows of nighttime, finding unconventional ways to traverse silently around enemies, and wears a mask to conceal his identity. The Ghost persona is also an intentional symbol like Batman’s, and though Batman doesn’t kill he still operates as a vigilante who does what he believes the authorities can’t or won’t in order to protect their people. In this way, Jin Sakai’s Ghost is remarkably comparable to Bruce Wayne’s Batman, and that should be accentuated more in Ghost of Tsushima 2 due to how well-executed of a premise it is in Sucker Punch’s open-world epic .
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Ghost of tsushima 2 should let jin sakai go full ghost, ghost of tsushima mimicked batman’s persona in a feudal japan setting.
Batman didn’t invent stealth from the shadows, to be fair, but the events that catalyze Jin’s actions are certainly reminiscent of Batman. Batman may not typically wield a katana, but tip-toeing across rooftops and silently taking out enemies while under the shadowy guise of a symbol greater than himself is certainly something Ghost of Tsushima ’s Jin Sakai can relate to.
The Ghost becomes what Jin couldn’t and accomplishes what he can’t, though Jin and the Ghost are mutually exclusive without Jin ever feeling as though he’s splitting himself down the center to do what he believes is necessary. Unlike Bruce Wayne, who normally needs to keep up appearances and live a double life, Jin’s double life is only apparent when he’s in the company of his uncle, Lord Shimura, and even he learns of Jin’s persona fairly quickly.
Either way, it’s still a neat hook for Ghost of Tsushima to blend the honorable dueling combat of a noble samurai with the dishonorable cunning of a predatory shinobi. Jin’s not afraid to use whatever means to eliminate his foes, and even though he kills to defend his homeland there are still many interesting visual parallels between the Ghost and Batman that are unmistakable.
Ghost of Tsushima even goes as far as to have a stealth mechanic where players can descend upon unsuspecting enemies and cut them down in rapid succession, not unlike Batman’s multi-enemy fear takedowns in Arkham Knight .
Ghost of Tsushima 2 May Have No Further Need for the Ghost
The only reason Jin donned a mask in the first place was to hide his identity from Lord Shimura. Indeed, Shimura will likely be actively pursuing Jin in Ghost of Tsushima 2 , but there hardly seems like any reason necessary for Jin to maintain the Ghost persona now that he is fully aware of Jin’s actions. Of course, he could continue to be the Ghost for posterity’s sake and to perpetuate the legend if it was effective in warding off invaders or rekindling hope in Tsushima’s residents.
The Ghost never truly played a paramount role in gameplay because players could decide how they wanted to encounter enemies on their own beyond scripted quests, but Ghost of Tsushima 2 could make the Ghost an even more fearsome legend with quiet assassinations within smoke pellet plumes and a lot more nightly patrols in the same vein as Batman scouring Gotham City for ne’er-do-wells. Still, leaning into samurai Batman undertones shouldn’t stop Jin from relaxing in a hot spring now and then.
Ghost of Tsushima Director's Cut
In Ghost of Tsushima, players will roam the vast countryside and expansive terrain to encounter rich characters, discover ancient landmarks, and uncover the hidden beauty of Tsushima. The director's cut includes the full game and the Iki Island expansion, which has new story missions, enemies, and mini-games.
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