65m Luxury Undersea Yacht Phoenix 1000 by US Submarines

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Written by Zuzana Bednarova

65m undersea superyacht Phoenix 1000 is a personal luxury submarine built by US Submarines. Submarine yacht Phoenix 1000 is the single largest private undersea vehicle ever built, and probably one of the most important personal transportation devices of the century.

Phoenix 1000 by US Submarines

US Submarines Phoenix 1000 submarine

213´ luxury submarine yacht Phoenix 1000 has more than ample space. The total interior area of the submarine is in excess of 460 square meters (5000 square feet). The significant volume, coupled with very large acrylic viewports, and the potential for relatively large open spaces, results in a vehicle as luxurious as the finest of motor yachts.

Clearly, underwater super yacht Phoenix 1000 provides its owner with substantially more capability than a simple yacht – the opportunity to explore the depths of the world’s oceans in perfect comfort and safety. The Phoenix 1000 yacht is capable of making trans-Atlantic crossings at 16 knots yet can dive along the route and explore the continental margins of some of the most fascinating waters on earth.

the submarine yacht

US Submarines Phoenix 1000

And unlike surface yachts, when the water gets rough, the submarine can submerge into a perfectly smooth and quiet environment, continuing on toward its destination, providing a ride unsurpassed in quality-unequaled by the finest motor coach or the most luxurious executive aircraft.

At 65-meters (213 feet) in overall length, and with a beam in excess of 8 meters (26 feet), the Phoenix 1000 is a vehicle of formidable size. Yet despite its 1500-ton displacement, the submarine is quite streamlined. Given the significant waterplane area and ample internal volume, which allows for greater battery storage, the Phoenix 1000 yacht will out-perform smaller counterparts in surface speed, submerged speed and submerged endurance.

Phoenix 1000 luxury submarine

Phoenix 1000 luxury submarine

The large pressure hull diameter allows for very large acrylic viewports, making the undersea viewing capability truly extraordinary. The interior space, with the noted absence of structural bulkheads, provides for tremendous versatility in interior layout and space planning. And finally, the Phoenix 1000’s large size coupled with its integrated roll stabilization system makes surface transit quite comfortable in all but the worst conditions.

Flying Bridge

The uppermost level of the vessel is the flying bridge. This area is similar to its equivalent area on most yachts, with the exception of the fact that the materials selected are subject to immersion in water. Ample space exists for lounging, and cushions may be brought up from the area below. The flying bridge also houses the pressure-compensated radar radome, GPS antennae and satellite communications radome, as well as radio aerials, running lights, etc. A remote steering station is also available.

Luxurious interior of the Phoenix 1000 undersea superyacht

Luxurious interior of the Phoenix 1000 undersea superyacht

Deck Saloon

Immediately below the flying bridge and accessible through a large hydraulically operated hatch and a stairway, is the deck saloon. As proposed, this area would be composed of structural acrylic cylindrical sections 2.1 meters (7′) in diameter and 20 centimeters (8″) in thickness. The overall length of the deck saloon pressure hull would be 12 meters.

The deck saloon would have a comfortably appointed interior and would boast an incredible view for observation, both on the surface and when submerged. By fitting transparent sections into the deck of the flying bridge, a view above can be enjoyed as well.

In the forward portion of the saloon is the surface bridge. This area contains all the necessary control, monitoring and navigation equipment to operate the submarine in the surfaced condition. The captain has a hemispherical sector acrylic viewport immediately in front, with the transparent cylindrical walls to either side.

The aft portion of the saloon has a large acrylic window, providing a view astern that also acts as a large hydraulically operated hatch. A small automobile could be kept in the aft section if desired.


The superstructure itself is composed principally of aluminum (or FRP if the owner prefers), and it houses the deck saloon pressure vessel and also provides the structural base for the flying bridge. There is a large degree of latitude possible with regard to the styling of the structure, with the caveat that its hydrodynamic efficiency will have a significant effect on the submerged speed of the submarine.

Aft of the deck saloon is a covered space that can be either fully or partially enclosed. The greater the degree of closure to the after portion of the structure, the less turbulence and the more hydromdynamic efficiency. Hydraulically actuated after doors could be designed to open, allowing fresh air to circulate. The area would be excellent for covered, informal, deck-level dining.

Docking Minisub

Aft of the superstructure, or optionally, above the control cabin on the bow, is an area for a docking minisub. Utilizing a special docking collar, this vehicle is capable of leaving the Phoenix 1000 superyacht while submerged and making excursions down to 610 meters (2000 feet). With both top and bottom hatches, the minisub could also bring passengers from the surface to the submarine lying at depth. The minisub could be designed to hold between two and eight passengers, depending upon the owner’s preferences. Additionally, in the unlikely event of an emergency at depth, the minisub could be used to take passengers and crew to the surface.

Forward Control Room

The forward control room is entered from the main deck through a watertight, pressure-proof door. The control room has a 2.4 meter (8′) diameter hemispherical sector acrylic viewport forward and three 1.8 meter (6′) diameter viewports on either side, with the foremost pair angled slightly forward.

The control room contains all of the control and navigation equipment necessary to operate the submarine while submerged. The 8 meter x 4 meter (26′ x 13′) area contains sufficient space to fit comfortable lounge chairs for passenger observation while underway.

Main Passenger Areas

The main passenger area consists of two decks, each 31 meters (102′) long and 6 meters (20′) wide. The upper deck is accessed from one of two hatches, either from the deck saloon or from a hatch to the after portion of the superstructure. Two stairways, one in the center of the deck, the other in the after section, lead to the lower deck.

The upper deck is intended to provide space for an engineering workstation, a switch and contactor room, crew cabins and mess, as well as the galley. The forward portion, which ends at a bulkhead, is designed as a room of the owner’s choosing.

The main deck is situated such that the forward portion, with eight 1.8 meter (6′) diameter acrylic windows, contains the living and dining areas, while the section aft of the beam houses the owner’s stateroom and guest cabins. Five viewports, 90 centimeters (35″) in diameter, are situated on both port and starboard sides.

Below the passenger area is the battery compartment and bilge. A narrow manway allows access through the compartment for battery maintenance.

Engine Room

The engine room is accessed through doors at the after portion of both passenger decks. The space contains the majority of the equipment necessary for the submarine’s operation, including the main diesels, motor generators, drive systems, air compressors, hydraulic aggregates and life support systems. The upper level of the engine space provides access to the minisub, and in the stern section, to a diver lock-out chamber. The bottom level allows maintenance of the main engines and related components. Diver Lock-out Chamber

A spherical diver lock-out chamber, 2.4 meters (8′) in diameter is fitted above the shafts and attached to the aftermost section of the pressure hull. The chamber allows a diver to enter or exit the submarine from the area between the shafts at depths of up to 45 meters (150′). The chamber can be fitted with decompression capability if required.

General Specifications of the 65m luxury undersea superyacht Phoenix 1000:

Certification: ABS+A1 Manned Submersible Operating Depth: 305 meters Passengers: varies (470 sq m interior) Crew: 3 Length: 65.0 meters (213′) Beam: 8.0 meters (26.3′) Pressure Hull Diameter: 6.7 meters (22′) center Weight in Air: 1500 tons

Dynamic Characteristics Maximum Surface Speed: 18.0 knots Cruising Surface Speed: 16.0 knots Max. Submerged Speed: 10.0 knots

Propulsion Surface Diesels: 2 x 1100 kW Main Electric Motor/Generators: 2 x 370 kW Vertical Thrusters: 2 x 110 kW Lateral Thrusters: 2 x 410 kW

Endurance (Predicted) Surface Range: 3500 nautical miles Submerged Endurance: 6 hours at 10 knots/50 hours at 5 knots/140 hours at 2.5 knots

Battery and Electrical Systems Main Battery: 360 VDC Communication Battery: 24 VDC Control Battery: 24 VDC Emergency Battery: 24 VDC Total Battery Capacity: 3280 KWH Electric Generator: 2 x 370 kW

Ballast and Trim Systems Main Ballast Capacity: 340,000 KG Variable Ballast: 18,000 KG Trim/Dropweight: 9,000 KG trim/135,000 KG drop

Gas Supply Main Oxygen: 30 days, full load Reserve Oxygen: 10 days Main Air: 275 bar, external Air Compressor: 310 bar, 150 kW Navigation and Communications Compass Main: Gyro compass Compass reserve: Fluxgate Speed Log: Digital Depth Gauge: 400 meter, analog and digital Active Sonar: Color Imaging Surface Communications: Marine VHF Subsurface UWT: 10 and 27 KHZ

Additional Instrumentation Custom Control LCDs: Ballast Indicators Thruster Control Panel: Hydraulic Panel F-16 Style Joystick: Hydraulic Pressure RPM Gauge: Depth Sounder CRT Rudder Indicator: Video Camera System Life Support Panel: Video Monitors Oxygen Gauges: Electrical Panel Oxygen Analyzer: Volt andAmp Meters Carbon Dioxide Monitor: IR andCircuit Protection Alarm Panel: Lighting Panel Interlock Indicators: Clock Flammable Gas Monitor: Barometer/Hygrometer Fire Suppression System: Inclinometers Ballast Panel: Thermometer Air Pressure Gauges

Please contact CharterWorld - the luxury yacht charter specialist - for more on superyacht news item "65m Luxury Undersea Yacht Phoenix 1000 by US Submarines".

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Migaloo: The $2 Billion Superyacht Submarine

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Migaloo , an Austrian enterprise, has introduced a pioneering concept in hybrid diesel/electric submarine yachts, under the banner of Migaloo Private Submersible Yachts.

In January 2024, Migaloo revealed its latest innovation, the Migaloo M5, a 165.8-meter submersible superyacht.

Engineered for both tropical and arctic environments, the Migaloo M5 boasts the capability to submerge to a depth of 250 meters for approximately four weeks.

Christian Gumpold, CEO of Migaloo, expressed his belief in the burgeoning category of submersible superyachts, stating, “In addition to motor yachts and sailboats, I believe submersible superyachts will become an additional category of private vessels for owners to choose from.”

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MIGALOO - the future of yachting

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Statement of Christian Gumpold, CEO and founder of MIGALOO:

The needs of Superyacht Owners for their vessels are more complex than ever. These wishes do not just include performance, length or design. Owner are looking for privacy , security and protection for themselves, their guests and their valuables, or for the fulfillment of unique experiences up to scientific desires as well as for the greatest possible exclusivity and limitation .

We belive the expectations on superyachts are rising faster and higher than ever.

Current and upcoming Yachting trends as well as UHNWI trends are:   Privacy and security for Owner and Guests Exploration, expedtion and R&D Experiences and immaterial goods Individualisation Sustainability Innovation in design, materials, GA, overall concept and use cases

High tech and high-end entertainment Younger owners with no superyacht experience and high willingness for unconventional projects and cooperations

Frugal luxury: own less, but get more

New business models and operation models

We believe motor yachts and sailing yachts cannot fully satisfy  the ever-rising demands of modern Owner. We believe the Yachting Industry needs a (r)evolutionary innovation. We believe Submersible Superyachts offer high (business) potentials for all parties - Owner, Designer, Builder, Supplier, Broker, Captain & Crew,...

We believe Submersible Superyachts are a new category of vessel type Owner can choose from, alongside to motor yachts and sailing yachts.

We believe that Submersible Superyachts are the Future of Yachting.

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Owner Archetypes

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MIGALOO Private Submersible Superyachts intentionally appeal to a highly exclusive and discerning group of Owners, though spanning a broad spectrum of age groups, professions, genders, locations and cultural backgrounds.

These Owner archetypes are characterized by a common trait - an outstanding motivation for owning and operating a MIGALOO Private Submersible Superyacht.

Each motivation can be attributed to existing or upcoming trends among Ultra-High-Net-Worth Individuals (UHNWI) - from the fascination with exploration, exclusivity and immersive experiences to the paramount importance of security or business-oriented motivations, the archetypes pursue highly demanding, professional, complex goals and areas of interest.

To address these challenges optimally, MIGALOO's individual Owner-centered design process pays maximum attention to empathy, values, motivations, desires, customization and the specific requirements of the Owners.

MIGALOOs' vision is to develop extraordinary designs above and below the waterline - for the most visionary and innovative Owner

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Press Overview

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design Services & Ownership

  MIGALOOs holistic service package covers design, supervision and Owners Representation before, during and after design and building

Custom Design Project Configuraton - Free Download

Click on the picture below and download the MIGALOO General Project Configuration

Select preferred options and add individual wishes and requirements on a curated selection of project-related topics

 Feel free to submit the completed document back to us

Based on the unique configuration, we meticulously analyze the Owner's wishes in detail

 CEO and Designer, Christian Gumpold, would be delighted to arrange a complimentary call to discuss the project and provide recommendations for the next steps

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MIGALOO is named after an all-white humpback whale and means "White Fella".

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This Insane Superyacht-Submarine Hybrid Looks Like a Lavish Underwater Hotel Inside

The nautilus affords cinematic views of the world beneath the waves., rachel cormack.

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U-Boat Worx's Nautilus Superyacht-Submarine

U-Boat Worx blew us away with a bonkers superyacht-submarine concept late last year. Now it’s doubling down on the insanity.

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Christened the Nautilus, the 123-footer is designed to serve as both a private yacht and a fully functional sub. It is equipped with a diesel-electric propulsion system that allows it to cruise across the ocean at speeds of up to nine knots or travel underwater at four knots. The 1,250-ton hybrid can dive to 656 feet and cover some 3,200 nautical miles, according to U-Boat Worx. It will be able to stay underwater for up to four days, but can only cruise beneath the waves for six hours at a time.

U-Boat Worx’s Nautilus Superyacht-Submarine

“Our goal has always been to share the wonders of the underwater world with people in the safest, most luxurious, and comfortable way possible,” U-Boat Worx CEO Bert Houtman said in a statement. “The Nautilus is the realization of that vision.”

Above or below the water, the Nautilus is designed to keep seafarers in the lap of luxury. The living quarters are outfitted with comfy, contemporary furnishings and large circular windows that afford incredible ocean vistas. The decor also seems to have a slight retrofuturistic bent, with curved lines and neon lights that feel very Jetsons .

The layout can be fully customized by the client, but the standard configuration includes a spacious saloon with a dining area, a fully equipped galley, one owner’s suite with a private bathroom, four staterooms, and cabins for up to six crew.

Other highlights include a mezzanine observation lounge that provides cinematic views of the marine life, a foredeck lounge that is perfect for cocktail hour, and a high-tech gym that’s stocked with all the requisite gear.

“We invite you to come and experience the thrill of underwater exploration for yourself, on board this one-of-a-kind vessel,” Houtman adds.

Up for the challenge? U-Boat Worx says the Nautilus can be delivered within 30 months and starts at roughly $24.5 million (€25 million).

Click here to see all the photos of U-Boat Worx’s Nautilus concept.

Rachel Cormack is a digital editor at Robb Report. She cut her teeth writing for HuffPost, Concrete Playground, and several other online publications in Australia, before moving to New York at the…

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The embodiment of exploration

Discover what makes Nautilus submarine the ultimate exploration vessel. Both on and under the water, functioning as both a yacht and a submarine

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General Characteristics

Maximum operating depth.

150 meters – 500 Feet

7 crew – up to 10 guests

Length overall: 42 meter Beam overall: 7,7 meter Gross tonnage: 1,610 Tons

Propulsion: Diesel-Electric Surface speed: 10 knots Submerged speed: 10 knots

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Above and underwater

The luxury yacht submarine.

The Nautilus is a diesel-electric yacht submarine with a 150-meter depth rating, surface and underwater speed of 10 knots. It features a massive sundeck with a freshwater pool, bar, and large lounge area, which retracts before submersion. The interior boasts a 50 m2 dinner and lounge area with four 4-meter circular windows, a master stateroom, four guest rooms, sleeping quarters for up to seven crew, and a fully equipped galley. The layout is fully customizable with a large variety of configurations.

An experience like no other

The experience of being aboard the Nautilus is truly one of a kind. As you step inside the submarine, you will be struck by its luxurious and cutting-edge design. The Nautilus is not just a mode of transportation, it is a true underwater sanctuary. The special Air filtration system aboard the Nautilus provides both fresh air and temperature control, ensuring that you will always be comfortable during your journey.

As you explore the depths of the ocean, you will have the opportunity to see marine life that few have ever laid eyes on. The submarine’s unique design allows for ample natural light to flood the interior, creating an atmosphere that is both serene and breathtaking.

The Mezzanine Observation Lounge offers panoramic views of the ocean, while the main deck lounge and foredeck lounge provide comfortable spaces to relax and take in the sights. The saloon, the central space in the Nautilus, is the perfect place to gather with your fellow passengers and share stories about the day’s adventures.

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Ultimate Luxury

Experience unparalleled luxury and comfort in the Nautilus submarine. The interior design is carefully crafted with premium materials and features a spacious lounge area, elegant dining table, and fully equipped galley.

The master stateroom and guest cabins are equipped with large windows, allowing you to immerse yourself in the stunning underwater scenery. Customizable layouts are available to fit your unique needs and preferences.

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Stories become reality

The inspiration for the Nautilus submarine is rooted in Jules Verne’s classic novel, “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.” The novel, published in 1870, tells the story of Captain Nemo and his submarine, the Nautilus, as they embark on a journey beneath the seas. The novel’s depiction of a technologically advanced underwater vessel captivated audiences and has continued to inspire engineers, designers and explorers alike. 

The Nautilus is a modern reinterpretation of the fictional Nautilus, with state-of-the-art technology and luxury amenities, it is built to take its passengers on an adventure of a lifetime, just like Captain Nemo and his crew. 

The Nautilus is not just a means of transportation but a true exploration vessel, built to take on the most challenging and remote places of the ocean, just like in the novel.

Best of both worlds

The Nautilus submarine offers the best of both worlds – luxury yacht cruising and deep sea exploration. With state-of-the-art technology, luxurious amenities, and a depth rating of 150 meters, the Nautilus can take you on an adventure of a lifetime. The Nautilus is truly the perfect blend of adventure and luxury.

Yacht functionality

The sundeck aboard the Nautilus is a luxurious outdoor area, perfect for relaxing and enjoying the beauty of the underwater world. With its bar and jacuzzi, guests can indulge in a drink or soak up the sun while taking in the surroundings. Whether you’re lounging on a chaise or soaking in the jacuzzi, the sundeck offers the perfect escape from the confines of the submarine. It’s an ideal space for unwinding and appreciating the beauty of the sea.

The Nautilus submarine features a retractable beach club and a swim platform, providing passengers with easy access to the water for swimming, snorkeling, and other water activities. The beach club can be equipped with comfortable seating and lounge chairs, making it the perfect spot to relax and enjoy the sunshine.

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Submarine functionality

The Nautilus submarine is designed for extended underwater exploration with a impressive autonomy. It can operate independently for up to 55 hours, with a range of approximately 110 nautical miles at a speed of 2 knots. Its diesel-electric propulsion system ensures quiet operation, allowing passengers to enjoy the peacefulness of the underwater world without disturbance. With the Nautilus, adventurers can embark on longer and more daring underwater journeys with confidence.

Interior features

See why the Nautilus interior complements this ultimate underwater explorer

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The most compact private submarine

Super yacht sub 3.


Versatile, smart and capable with a design that will satisfy the highest expectations of discerning superyacht owners.

Super Yacht Sub 3 isometric view

The fully acrylic hyper-hemispherical viewport gives you the best panoramic view of the underwater world possible.

Freeboard is the height between the hatch and the waterline. The Freeboard Extender is a sliding barrier that increases the distance between the water and the hatch opening. It simultaneously allows for the submarine to be operated in rough conditions and be stored in low-height garage spaces.

The latest in Lithium-ion battery technology is used to give our submersibles the ultimate performance, lowest weight, smallest footprint, and best endurance possible. The Lithium-ion battery can be quickly recharged and is maintenance-free.

The powerful thrusters and the excellent manoeuvrability of the Super Yacht Sub 3 boost superior surface performance. You will be able to go faster, manoeuvre better and expand your operational window.

This compact ultra-wide (130 degree) field of view instrument has a range of 100 meters acting as a second set of eyes when navigating the subsea terrain.

External equipment comprising a selection of subsea robotic arms together with work platforms and collection baskets can be installed on most of the U-Boat Worx models.

Super Yacht Sub 3 rear isometric view

The red buoy is characteristic for U-Boat Worx submersibles. When released it marks the position of the submarine on the surface. The Dyneema Rope attached measures 1.5 x the operating depth of the submersible, and is strong enough to lift it to the surface.

Super Yacht Sub 3 interior

The U-Boat Worx Information System (UIS) gives the pilot direct access to all relevant information on a clear touch-screen display. The PLC-based network of sensors ensures the right information is provided at the right time. The UIS makes diving effortless.

The acrylic pressure hull accommodates two luxurious leather seats which can be customized to your taste.


The best dive experience

This submarine is aimed at the yacht markets where an ever-growing number of seaboard owners are discovering the world below the waterline. This compact and lightweight model delivers both performance and luxury.


Clearest View

The ground breaking pressure hull design provides a virtually unimpeded view; everyone on board can easily see the hidden secrets of the deep.


Unparalleled comfort

With the U-Boat Worx Super Yacht Sub 3, we have aspired to create the ultimate in luxury interior design. When onboard a Super Yacht Sub 3, guests enjoy exhilarating views from a sumptuous chair in a comfortable air-conditioned environment with variable airflow, adjustable from each seat. You can also enjoy music from a hi-fidelity Bluetooth sound-system and even chill your favourite drinks in a cold-storage box.


Unrivalled mission-adaptability

The Super Yacht Sub 3 outperforms on every level – flexibility, agility, economy and power. This exceptional submersible features the Freeboard Extender and other smart engineering solutions.


Designed from concept to be dive-ready, U-Boat Worx has kept pre-dive checks to the safest minimum, allowing for quick and easy deployment.


Super Yacht Sub 3 anatomy view white

  • Depth 300 m · 1000 ft
  • Occupancy 2 passengers · 1 pilot
  • Weight 3,800 kg
  • Endurance 12 hours
  • Length 320 cm
  • Width 244 cm
  • Height 174 cm
  • Battery 21.6 kWh
  • Propulsion 4 X 6 kW
  • Speed 3 knots

Lithium-ion battery technology

Freeboard extender, manta controller, marlin controller, auto-heading, omni-directional operation, container fit, single lifting point.

The MANTA Controller allows for pinpoint precision manoeuvring. The intuitive controls allow for supervised passenger steering, offering passengers an even more exciting experience. The controller allows quick access to intelligent pilot assistance functions such as  Auto-heading  and  Auto-depth.

Developed to make  Launch & Recovery  effortless and efficient, the MARLIN Controller is a wireless remote to navigate the submarine on the surface. Once the submarine is in the water the controller can be used to navigate it away from the support vessel without a pilot inside. It can also be used to bring the submarine into position above a dive site or for easy passenger transfer.

With Auto-depth engaged, the submersible will hold steady at its current depth. When applying vertical thrust, the function will automatically disengage and seamlessly respond to the pilot’s commands. This function is part of the  Intelligent Pilot Assistance   Features.

When Auto-heading is activated, the submersible will automatically hold its current heading, whether following a course or facing an object of interest. This function is part of the  Intelligent Pilot Assistance   Features.

The U-Boat Worx Information System (UIS) gives the pilot direct access to all relevant information on a clear touch-screen display. This PLC-based sensory network ensures the right information is provided at the right time. The UIS makes diving effortless.

Apart from the basic forward, reverse, up and down movements, the submersible can also move laterally. Lateral movement greatly optimises object approach, view, and dive efficiency.

This submersible is designed to fit in a shipping container. Perfect for when the submersible needs to be transported to and deployed in different locations.

The single lifting point makes launch and recovery quick and easy. By only having to attach at one point – to the crane – you create a safer environment. With the rapid-release and efficient-connect lifting gear, you can be quickly in and out of the water.

Maximum depth protection

Deadman's switch, drop weight, safety buoy, dnv certification.

The MDP feature prevents the pilot from diving deeper than the submarine’s maximum operating depth. In case the submersible should ever find itself too deep, this safety feature will automatically raise the sub until it is once again within its ideal depth limits.

This DMS safety system will automatically resurface the submersible in the unlikely event that the pilot becomes incapable of controlling the submarine. The pilot needs to acknowledge the DMS every 10 minutes, otherwise it will initiate the ascent procedure.

This weight can be manually released from within the submersible to increase the buoyancy of the submarine and return to the surface.

A very advanced USBL system is available that relays GPS data to the submersible’s on-board computer via integrated underwater modems. Piloting with real time positioning and supporting text data provides for accurate and efficient navigation. The DVL (Doppler Velocity Log) delivers real-time ground speed and position data linking to the on-board computer system.

Certified by leading classification society, DNV, requires each individual submersible to meet stringent and extensive rules and regulations, as well as pass a range of rigorous test and trials from design to final delivery. Overseen by independent surveyors, this is an independent verification of the safety of every U-Boat Worx submersible.

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C-Researcher series

C-Researcher Series

  • C-Researcher 2 500 M 1,640 Ft 5,750 KG 12,700 Lb 2
  • C-Researcher 2 1,140 M 3,740 Ft 7,200 KG 15,800 Lb 2
  • C-Researcher 2 3,000 M 9,840 Ft 9,960 KG 21,950 Lb 2
  • C-Researcher 3 300 M 1,000 Ft 6,300 KG 13,900 Lb 3
  • C-Researcher 3 1,140 M 3,740 Ft 8,900 KG 19,620 Lb 3
  • C-Researcher 3 2,500 M 8,200 Ft 11,300 KG 24,910 Lb 3
  • C-Researcher 3 LH 500 M 1,640 Ft 4,100 KG 9,040 Lb 3
  • C-Researcher 3 LH 1,700 M 5,570 Ft 10,500 KG 23,150 Lb 3
  • C-Researcher 5 300 M 1,000 Ft 8,600 KG 18,960 Lb 5

NEXUS Series

NEXUS Series

  • NEXUS 7 200 M 650 Ft 11,000 KG 24,000 Lb 7
  • NEXUS 8 200 M 650 Ft 12,000 KG 26,000 Lb 9

Cruise Sub series

Cruise Sub Series

  • Cruise Sub 5 500 M 1,640 Ft 8,500 KG 18,750 Lb 5
  • Cruise Sub 5 1,140 M 3,750 Ft 11,000 KG 24,250 Lb 5
  • Cruise Sub 5 1,700 M 5,570 Ft 16,000 KG 35,260 Lb 5
  • Cruise Sub 7 300 M 1,000 Ft 9,500 KG 20,940 Lb 7
  • Cruise Sub 7 1,140 M 3,740 Ft 14,500 KG 31,970 Lb 7
  • Cruise Sub 9 300 M 1,000 Ft 11,000 KG 24,250 Lb 9
  • Cruise Sub 11 200 M 650 Ft 13,300 KG 29,320 Lb 11

Super Yacht Sub

Super Yacht Sub 3

  • Super Yacht Sub 3 300 M 1,000 Ft 3,800 KG 8,380 Lb 3

C-Explorer series

C-Explorer Series

  • C-Explorer 3 300 M 1,000 Ft 6,010 KG 13,250 Lb 3
  • C-Explorer 5 200 M 650 Ft 7,340 KG 16,180 Lb 5

NEMO series


  • NEMO 2 100 M 330 Ft 2,500 KG 5,510 Lb 2

Super Sub

  • Super Sub 300 M 1,000 Ft 9,000 KG 19,800 Lb 3


  • 120 OCCUPANTS 150 M 500 Ft 120


  • 17 occupants 150 M 500 Ft 17

Occupants (min.)

Depth (min.), weight (max.), height (max.).


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  • Luxury submarines »
  • Migaloo Submarine »

Migaloo Private Submersible Superyachts

Migaloo Submersible Superyacht


Migaloo Private Submersible Superyachts represent the pinnacle of luxury in private submarine travel, designed for business parties, underwater tours, and high-end tourism, offering a wealth of custom interior design options. These submarine yachts, merging state-of-the-art design with cutting-edge technology, deliver an unparalleled, exclusive experience for passengers. Despite their extravagant cost—reaching into the billions of US dollars—owning one of these vessels promises unparalleled prestige and unforgettable experiences for VIP passengers. Imagine the unparalleled lifestyle afforded by access to onboard spas, gyms, lounges, cinemas, dining rooms, bars, and breathtaking views through the windows. Ranging in length from 72 to 283 meters, these majestic submarines seem straight out of a James Bond film, perfectly suited for the most discerning of supervillains or elite adventurers.

In terms of safety, Migaloo Submersibles prioritize the well-being of their guests and crew without compromise. Every aspect of their design, construction, and operation adheres to the rigorous standards of the US SUBSAFE program and the specific requirements of leading classification societies like DNV/GL. Features include a double hull construction with multiple pressure hulls, ensuring structural integrity under the sea. Additionally, the inclusion of two midget submarines accessible from the main pressure hull, emergency locks at both the bow and stern, and emergency indicator buoys enhance evacuation options and safety measures. Redundancy is built into all critical systems to guarantee operational reliability. Personal safety equipment, including Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment (SEIE) for guests and crew, underscores a commitment to safety. The aft deck features a helipad (D-Value 13 m) and a helicopter hangar within a dedicated pressure hull, further expanding the capability and safety profile of these extraordinary vessels.


Migaloo Submersible Superyacht Top View

M5 Migaloo Submersible Superyacht

The Migaloo 135 Meter Private Submarine Yacht – M5 stands as a pinnacle of superyacht luxury, boasting an array of ultra-luxurious amenities. It comes fully equipped with leisure facilities, including a garage for 2 mini-submarines, 2 hangars for tenders and toys, a helipad, an outdoor pool, a gym, a cinema room, a gaming room, a spa, a wine room, an elevator, a library, several bars, semi-outdoor lounges, and beach clubs. The yacht’s layout and design offer customizable options, allowing the owner to tailor spaces such as private appointments, VIP suites, and accommodations for a personalized number of officers, crew, and guests, ensuring an unparalleled bespoke luxury experience at sea. Migaloo submarines are designed for multi-week vacations.

Migaloo Cruise Line Submarine Top View

Migaloo M5 Cruise Line Submarines

This even more colossal submarine yacht, akin to a sea monster, makes the planet’s largest animal, the blue whale, seem small by comparison. The Migaloo submarines are far from ordinary; they truly are underwater behemoths. The M6, an expanded version of the M5, offers additional space, luxury, and prestige, setting a new standard in personal submarine luxury.  Among personal submarines, this model stands as the pinnacle of extravagance and capability. It is a fully equipped and lavishly appointed vessel, boasting twice the machinery, space, and luxury of the M6.  Migaloo Personal Submarine Yachts are unparalleled in speed, size, and strength. These underwater leviathans are the crowning jewels of billionaires, embodying the ultimate in opulent underwater travel.

Migaloo High Security Submarine Under Attack

Migaloo M5 High-Security Systems

MIGALOO ensures the highest level of safety and security for the owner, their family, and valuables. Experience total privacy while traveling or staying below the waterline. These submarines are versatile, suitable for commercial, governmental, and private uses. Data Storage : They can function as Mobile Submerged Data Carriers or Backup Servers for companies or government authorities. Valuables : They offer secure storage solutions for museums, zoos, banks, insurance companies, or any institutions managing valuable assets. Private Security : They provide safety for the owner and their family against any potential threats.

Migaloo Kokomo Ailand with visible Helipad

Migaloo Kokomo Ailand

Migaloo stands out as one of the few companies capable of constructing floating islands, offering the creation of floating islands of any size. KOKOMO AILAND, a renowned floating island, exemplifies Migaloo’s craftsmanship. This venture has elevated the submarine industry to unprecedented heights. For those who can afford it, exploring Migaloo’s personal submarine superyachts and floating islands is a must. General amenities on these luxurious creations include two beach clubs with a gym, a private harbor and harbor club, an underwater dining salon, a shark-feeding station, an outdoor cinema, barbecue facilities and an outdoor stage, along with a heli deck and substantial storage for tenders and toys.

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There's Now a Superyacht That Doubles As a Fully Functional Submarine

By Ryan on 08/05/2022 10:37 AM

There's Now a Superyacht That Doubles As a Fully Functional Submarine

The Austrian Superyacht company Migaloo is offering a wide range of submersible yacht solutions to accommodate those that need extra privacy.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

They offer 5 submersible luxury vessels that allow you to dive below the surface.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

The 5 versions of the submarine yachts range in size to offer the perfect superyacht for your needs.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

Migaloo offers five different submersible superyachts, ranging in size from as small as 230 feet (70 meters) long to as large as 928 feet (283 meters) long.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

From smallest to largest, the Migaloo submarine yachts come in the following design models: the M2 (928 ft.), the M5 (541 ft.), and the M7 (928 ft.). 

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

Each of these designs is built to order, though the company does offer a few specs for its M5-sized superyacht.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

These submerging superyachts can accommodate around 22-34 guests and up to 32-40 staff members, and they feature a diesel-electric powertrain along with a robust Stirling AIP engine.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

You can also buy several different kinds of configurations, complete with departments for the ship itself, and toys that can be used independently of the yacht.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

Other incredible add-ons that you can purchase with the submarine yacht combo include surface tender boats, ROV and UUV underwater vehicles, jetskis, and a helicopter.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

These include the fly deck, sun and sail deck, beach deck, main sub deck, lower sub deck and battery and tank sub deck.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

No matter who you are, you’re gonna need a crap-ton of money to afford this private submersible superyacht, but we here at OddityMall believe in you and think you can do it.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

And it’ll obviously be worth it once you can afford it, so you can host all the world’s most elite people to an underwater meeting — or just the party of a lifetime.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

And if you’re on this page just pretending you’re rich enough to afford the Migaloo superyacht submarine combo, well, there’s absolutely no shame in that.

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

You can snag the Migaloo superyacht that doubles as a fully functional submarine for right around $2.3 billion!

Migaloo Superyacht Submarine - Submersive submarine yacht

Check out the superyacht submarine in action via the video below!

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The 15 Best Personal Submarines For Superyacht Owners

By Victor Baker

Updated on February 11, 2023

Best Personal Submarines

Back in the old days, submarines were solely used for utilitarian purposes, like for research or for the military. But after many years of sitting on the edge of yachting manufacturing, personal submarines are becoming an established mode of transport for personal leisure.

Of course, the prices are exuberant, so it’s still a toy for the rich and famous, but us mere mortals can dream of some luxury, can’t we?

There are four main brands that are into submarine making that have been working on refining their designs for a good part of the last couple of decades. A fifth one is in the process of building a submarine with an interior that resembles a luxury business jet that will hopefully break through the barriers of the industry.

NEMO Submarine

Do you recall the 1977 James Bond movie , where his car became an immersible submarine? Back then we all thought that was fantasy, and those fantasies only existed in the movies. Well, Aston Martin is working on making that dream a reality. They are hoping to come up with the first submersible car to explore the oceans underwater while maintaining a luxurious lifestyle the brand believes in.

The research vessels have been around for a while, and their place is well established in the yacht industry . But the ultimate superyacht toys are in a category all of their own. We will explore the world most of us still only dream of, while a few fortunate humans can call this their hobby.

Triton personal submarine

Superyacht owners are into a different set of toys they like to spend their time with, such as helicopters, jet skis , or jacuzzis. The new and improved submarines that are built now are meant to be handled by more yachts than in the past. Usually, the submarine is launched with a crane that can handle the weight to lift it and the superyacht needs to possess the capacity to deal with all that entails. The crew should be experienced as well if they want to avoid accidents.

If you’re in the market for a personal submarine, they start at about one million US dollars, but some exceed that price by a lot more, and can even go into dozens of millions. Some of the factors such as maximum depth, submerged time, and payload capacity can all have an effect on the final cost. If you get all the bells and whistles, you are looking at a different price range.

Let’s see which are the 15 best personal submarines in the world right now.

  • Seabreacher X

Seabreacher X

Among the most technologically advanced marine vessels ever built, the Seabreacher X is a two-seater sub equipped with a 300 high-powered engine. If you’re familiar with the Y model, then you can notice the similarities in size. It is more aggressive shape-wise and it provides better propulsion while underwater with the fully vectored thrust system.

With about five meters (or 16 feet) in length, its design resembles a shark, and it seems as if it really mimics the tail articulation of water mammals.

  • U-Boat Worx C-Explorer

U-Boat Worx C-Explorer 5

With a maximum depth of up to 1,000 feet, the three or five-seat C-Explorer can stay underwater for up to eight hours. Not the largest sub we looked at, its transparent acrylic hull provides its passengers with cool 360-degree views.

It has a climate-controlled cabin that keeps its occupants comfortable for the duration of the trip. Even if you encounter some rough waters, the machine will keep its stability due to the dual-pontoon hull design.

  • DeepFlight Necker Nymph

DeepFlight Necker Nymph

Built for Richard Branson and his paradise resort Necker Island, the Necker Nymph is 4.6 meters (15 feet) long, with a beam of 3 meters (just under ten feet). This open-cockpit winged submarine accommodates a party of three plus one crew member, and it reaches up to 150 feet underwater. It is considered more of an extension of scuba diving rather than a submarine though.

Offering a speed of up to 6 knots, it is a little fun machine for weekend getaways. The Virgin owner flies underwater thanks to its positive buoyancy system designer Graham Hawkes built especially for this model.

  • Triton 600/2

Triton 600 2

The smallest offering from Triton Subs , this little machine weighs in at just 2,500 kg (or just a little over 5,500 lbs), and standing at 1,47m (or just under five feet). The svelte new design has the same power as Triton’s flagship model. It seats two people, which makes this a nice size for owners that prefer to pilot their own vehicle.

You can dive up to 200 meters (about 650 feet), for a maximum of six hours. The sub reaches a top speed of four knots, which is not bad for a tiny submersible. It is also customizable, so you can make it your own.

  • DeepFlight Dragon

DeepFlight Dragon

Princess Yachts and Dragon collaborated for the design of this personal sub model, which fits in the garage of Princess 40M. It is made to fly underwater alongside large marine mammals. Its long shape makes navigating easier, and it flies beneath the surface to up to 330 feet using an electric motor. Some submarines use ballast to descend, but this is not the case for the DeepFlight Dragon.

The 16-foot submersible is one of the most streamlined models on the market. Due to its compact size, this two-person Dragon aspires to become standard equipment for superyachts.

  • U-Boat Worx Cruise Sub 7 1140

U-Boat Worx Cruise Sub 7 1140

This seven-person sub is the deepest diver on this list. The Cruise Sub 7 1140 from U-Boat Worx can descend underwater to 3,740 feet, and it can last up to 16 hours deep under the sea. It is an air-conditioned machine that comes with two acrylic spheres. The back-to-back seats allow for three passengers to face one way, and the other three in the opposite direction.

The seats are revolving, so everyone gets the same views. The eight thrusters of the flagship model are equipped with aids in the maneuverability department, and it also offers plenty of horsepower to navigate even in strong currents.

  • Triton 1650/3

Triton 1650 3

This three-person submersible is one of the lightest on the market. Also the most compact model, the Triton 1650/3 weighs in at 4,000 kg (or close to 9,000lbs), which makes it a bit heftier than others in this category. It can dive up to 500m (or 1640 feet) depths, but it does not take much room. It is compared to a pair of Jet Skis when stowed, that’s how well it does on storing space.

The passengers can benefit from 360 degree views that are possible because of the bulbous acrylic cabin. To resurface just use the single life point, and that’s it. Easy to use and fun all at once.

  • U-Boat Worx Nemo Submersible

U-Boat Worx Nemo Submersible

Specifically designed with superyachts in mind, the Nemo Submersible is the latest from submarine specialist U-Boat Works. The company offers a slick machine that can deep-dive up to 300 feet underwater, and it weighs in at roughly 5,500 lbs.

It is a pleasure launching and recovering it, as there is no need for a cradle. It also takes up as much room as two jet skis when you’re ready to store it. The design is also trendy and the colors are bright and visible.

  • EGO Compact Semi Submarine

EGO Compact Semi Submarine

This part boat part sub was invented by Korean company Raonhaje. Passengers can observe the marine life from an enclosed unit that submerges directly underwater, while it remains attached to the whole structure. The huge acrylic windows offer clear views of the underwater world from below deck.

Powered by an electric motor, it is an affordable and sustainable option. On top of that, it is a fairly silent model. What that means is that it does not scare away the marine life that surrounds it.

  • Nautilus VAS Submarine

Nautilus VAS Submarine

The US-based submersible maker Nautilus is the company behind this model, which took its inspiration from a military-style submarine construction. If you’re looking to purchase one of those submarines for your superyacht, you will enjoy hours underwater in pure comfort. Resembling a classic Bond vehicle, this luxury private submarine can hold up to five passengers.

Indoors, the machine is equipped with a toilet, stairs, a minibar, and it has enough headroom to be able to stand up freely. Using the large distortion-free optics, you can enjoy crystal clear views of marine life.

  • SEAmagine Ocean Pearl

SEAmagine Ocean Pearl

This two-person mini-submarine for luxury yachts goes for around $2.5 million. It has a maximum operating depth of 500 feet, and it can hold up for up to six hours. The clamshell design makes boarding easy with its large opening. It is also built to be able to handle multiple dives on the same day, without having to go back on deck.

Offering an excellent field of view to its occupants, it is also a safe and robust model. What’s cool about the Ocean pearl is the way it behaves underwater. It remains in the horizontal position at all times, and it doesn’t roll. In the event that the thrusters should stop, the submarine will rise back to the surface.

  • Aston Martin Triton Neptune

Aston Martin Triton Neptune

Teaming up with the brilliant people from Triton Submarines, Aston Martin wanted to design a brand new way to explore the underwater. Project Neptune is a fast, sleek, and extremely luxurious submersible that is changing the superyachting world. Think luxury car/yacht, with the same craftsmanship and detailing Astin Martin puts into creating its luxury cars.

Hand-stitched leather seats, a helm console are only a few of the numerous features the Neptune offers. It can remain submerged for up to eight hours, and go to depths of 1,640 feet.

  • SEAmagine Aurora 6

SEAmagine Aurora 6

Starting at $3.7 million, the Aurora 6 can carry five passengers and it reaches 3,300 feet. It contains six 10hp motors that offer extreme maneuverability. It can be compared to the same type of ease a multi-engine drone has. It seats a total of six people, including the pilot.

The guest lounge has room for three passengers that can enjoy the leather swivel chairs, while the others can sit at the back in their own seats. One of the larger sizes, it has its own toilet in the hull. The sub can go to 3,300 feet in-depth, and you can enjoy the marine life for up to eight hours.

  • Neyk Luxury L-1

Neyk Luxury L-1

The Neyk Luxury L-1 is easily one of the most ultra-modern submarine designs we’ve seen. Standing at 63-feet, this teardrop luxury sub can reach depths of 1,000 feet. Inside, the machine is spacious and can accommodate up to 12 guests. The height indoors goes up to six feet, so most people can stand comfortably.

Featuring a jet-style cockpit and all the bells and whistles they come with, the transparent nose cone provides you with a clear view of the ocean. The retractable undercarriage is built to drive up a ramp and use its own power. It is one of the most innovative designed submarines yet.

  • Phoenix 1000

Phoenix 1000

The single largest personal submarine ever made, it is also one of the most expensive ones . The size is impressive, at 65 meters (just under 215 feet), and a beam of about 8 meters (26 feet), it also has roughly 5,000 square feet of indoor area. It can fit a dozen people or so in its ten bedrooms, with its fully equipped kitchen, a jacuzzi, and a few viewing areas.

This underwater toy has capabilities of taking you to regions of the deep ocean other submersible machines cannot. It can make Transatlantic crossings at 16 knots of speed, all while keeping its passengers safe and comfortable. Luxury at its best, this will run you close to 2.3 billion US dollars.

These are the 15 best submarines for superyacht owners you can purchase this year. We hope you enjoyed this virtual tour into the gadgets the rich and famous invest their time and money into. Maybe one day we can also aspire to one of those submarines as our personal little toys.

Seabreacher X

About Victor Baker

Victor is our go-to associate editor for anything with four wheels – and more! With over a decade of experience in automotive journalism, his expertise spans from classic cars to the latest in electric vehicle technology. Beyond vehicles, he has broadened his editorial reach to cover a wide range of topics, from technology and travel to lifestyle and environmental issues. Learn more about Luxatic's Editorial Process .

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OceanGate sub a "monstrosity" say industry experts

One year on: everything we know about the tragic Titan submersible disaster

One year on from the fatal episode, BOAT unpacks everything we now know about the Titan disaster – from the timeline of events to the ongoing inquiry and warnings from experts. 

On 18 June 2023, the 6.7-metre submersible Titan imploded during a descent to the Titanic wreck at 3,800 metres below sea level. Operated by the American tourism and expeditions company OceanGate, Titan had five passengers on board who subsequently all died from the sub's violent inwards collapse.

Pakistani investor Shahzada Dawood and his son Suleman, British businessman Hamish Harding, French diver Paul-Henri Nargeolet and OceanGate CEO Stockton Rush were the victims aboard the deep-water vessel when the incident occurred. 

Titan was expected to take around two and a half hours to reach the wreckage but soon lost contact with its mothership, Polar Prince, kickstarting a search operation for the missing submarine. The news grabbed the attention of media outlets across the globe and updates trickled out across the week, rocking the yachting and submersible industry.

The US Coast Guard convened a Marine Board of Investigation (MBI) into the loss of the Titan submersible and the investigation is ongoing. While many theories and studies have circulated as to the cause of the Titan submarine tragedy – including microscopic imperfections in the carbon fibre hull – no conclusion has been reached as of yet. 

Last week a purported transcript of communications between the sub and mothership that went viral last year was declared to be fake. “I’m confident it’s a false transcript,” said the chairman of the MBI, Captain Jason D. Neubauer. “It was made up.”

Titan disaster timeline:

Sunday 18 june 2023.

08:00: The Titan submersible was launched from its mothership, Polar Prince (previously CCGS Sir Humphrey Gilbert). 09:45: Contact between the mothership and the submersible was lost. The U.S. Navy also noticed “an anomaly consistent with an implosion or explosion”. 15:00: Titan was scheduled to resurface but did not. 17:40: The U.S. Coast Guard was notified.

Monday 19 June

The search for Titan began.

Tuesday 20 June

Speculation began surrounding sonar detecting “banging” noises in the search area. These are later determined to be natural ocean sounds.

Thursday 22 June

Debris and remains of the sub were found around 500 metres from the bow of the Titanic. Citing this, the Coast Guard announced that the submersible had suffered a “catastrophic implosion.”

Sunday 25 June

The Coast Guard arranged a Marine Board of Investigation (MBI) to determine what happened to the Titan.

Wednesday 28 June 

Wreckage of the Titan was brought to St. John's, a city on Newfoundland island off Canada's Atlantic coast.

Sunday July 2

OceanGate announced it is ceasing operations.

Has there been an inquiry?

An investigation into the incident was launched by the US Coast Guard in June last year, which convened a Marine Board of Investigation (MBI) into the loss of the Titan submersible. The MBI examined "whether there is need for new laws or regulations, or amendment or repeal of existing laws or regulations, to prevent the recurrence of the casualty". 

The Coast Guard received debris and evidence recovered from the seafloor at the site of the Titan submersible (28 June 2023). Later in the year, marine safety engineers with the MBI launched a follow-up salvage mission which recovered additional presumed human remains that were carefully recovered from within Titan’s debris. The evidence was transported for analysis by US medical professionals (4 October 2023). 

A couple of months on, the US Coast Guard, National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) and the French Marine Casualty Investigation Authority (BEAmer) conducted an evidence review of recovered Titan submersible debris in Newport, Rhode Island (8 November 2023).

Jason Neubauer, Coast Guard chair for the Titan Marine Board of Investigation (MBI), said:  "This effort underscores the importance of international and interagency coordination in marine casualty investigations. Our partnerships with NTSB, TSB and the French Marine Casualty Investigation Authority enabled a thorough examination of the international incident, promoting safety and transparency."

There is currently no date set for the public hearing that will address the tragedy. Until then, the MBI will continue its evidence analysis and witness interviews as part of the ongoing investigation.

Did Titan have warnings from experts?

Speaking on a special episode of the Big BOAT Interview alongside Rob McCallum, co-founder of EYOS Expeditions , Triton Submarines' co-founder Patrick Lahey shared his first public comments on the Titan submarine disaster. He said the disaster was an "experimental monstrosity that should never have carried people".

Lahey recalls pleading with his long-time friend and Titanic expert Paul-Henri Nargeolet, who was killed in the incident, not to dive with OceanGate. "I tried to do everything I could to discourage him from going out there. I know many people that knew him did the same thing."

McCallum also discusses his now well-publicised email exchange with OceanGate CEO Stockton Rush, who also died on the dive, warning him that he was courting disaster by taking the uncertified Titan submersible to such extreme depths.

"He was completely dismissive," McCallum says. "The minute I found out it was going to be an unclassed vehicle, that's when the alarm bells rang. But perhaps the biggest red flag of all was when a senior member of the OceanGate team wrote a report laying out the 26 or 27 things wrong with the sub and suggested solutions to those problems and he was silenced." 

McCallum also relates the final time he met Rush, at a dinner, when, "I told him in no uncertain terms that he was doing the wrong thing".

Lahey also met Rush, and toured the OceanGate submersible while it was being tested in the Bahamas. "There were glaring defects. I made this list of things for them to address. But when I looked at it, I thought I didn't have to worry too much as there was no way it was ever going to see the light of day."

Both Lahey and McCallum underline the point that to prevent similar incidents, all submersibles should be subject to third-party certification.

"It's essential," says Lahey. "If people insist on [accreditation] you can be assured that the craft that you're getting in has been reviewed independently by a group of professionals and according to a set of rules, it will be safe. If you look at the track record of certified craft, it is without peer – 50-plus years of absolute safety."

You can listen to the full interview with Lahey and McCallum on the BOAT Briefing podcast . A new episode is released every week, and you can listen via Apple Podcasts and Spotify . Don't forget to subscribe so you never miss an episode of the superyacht industry's biggest podcast.

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The World’s Most Expensive Yachts—Including Some That Cost Billions

By Brett Berk

most expensive yachts

Though superyachts are already among the most costly consumer items available, the prices of the most expensive yachts in the world are still astounding. In recent decades, those with money to burn have settled on these floating palaces as an ideal locus for demonstrating their prosperity, and, as such, the global luxury yacht industry is undergoing a golden age. The world’s überwealthy think of their motor yachts as toys, and they’re constantly trying to outdo each other in scale, design, amenities, materials, and sheer profligacy.

Knowing this, what features does it take to own one of the most expensive yachts in existence? And how much do these opulent vessels actually cost? To that end, AD has compiled a list of the five priciest superyachts currently out on the water. As with many things connected to the very wealthy, details are shrouded in secrecy—often intentionally—to shield the assets from taxation or seizure, or to protect privacy.

Below, dive into the five reportedly most expensive yachts in the world.

5. Dubai ($400 million)

Image may contain Transportation Vehicle Yacht and Boat

This 531-foot yacht is reportedly owned by United Arab Emirates Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai. Though it was originally planned for another Middle Eastern potentate, Prince Jefri Bolkiah of Brunei, he suddenly voided the contract in 2001. With exteriors designed by Andrew Winch and interiors by Platinum Yachts, this German-built Blohm + Voss vessel features several Jacuzzis, a pool inlaid with handmade mosaic tiles that is reportedly large enough to hold 115 people, a circular staircase, a discotheque with an appropriately sized dance floor, squash courts, a movie theater, a dining room for 90 guests (the other 25 presumably have to eat in the pool?), a helipad, and a submarine.

4. Topaz ($527 million)

most expensive yacht

Resembling a stealth bomber, this 483-foot ship is reportedly owned by Russian fertilizer and coal oligarch Andrey Melnichenko. With exteriors by Tim Heywood Design Ltd. and interior designs by Terence Disdale Design, this German-built Lürssen Yacht features a 2,500-square-foot primary bedroom, six guest suites (with moveable walls so they can be transformed into four grand staterooms), glassware and tableware fashioned from French crystal, a helicopter hangar, a 30-foot speedboat tender, and three swimming pools, including one with a glass-bottom dangling menacingly above a disco.

3. Azzam ($600 million)

most expensive yachts

This 590-foot ship is currently thought to be the largest private yacht in the world and one of the fastest, with a top speed of 35 miles per hour. To achieve this immense scale and speed, it required a pair of gas turbines and two stratospherically potent diesel engines, rendering it very difficult to build. It is reportedly owned by a member of the royal family of the UAE, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. With exteriors by Nauta Yacht and interiors by French decorator Cristophe Leoni, this yacht was also built by Lürssen in Germany. The vessel is set apart by its early 19th-century Empire-style veneered furniture, as well as its state-of-the-art security systems, including a fully bulletproof primary suite and a high-tech missile deterrence capabilities.

2. Eclipse ($1.5 billion)

most expensive yachts

In addition to being the second-costliest, this 533-footer is thought to be the world’s second-largest private yacht. Owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich , the ship was claimed to be located in Turkey and may be impounded as part of the United Kingdom’s sanctions against Russia. Designed by Terry Disdale and built by Blohm + Voss, it features two-dozen guest cabins, two swimming pools, two helipads, and multiple hot tubs. For privacy and security reasons, it hosts a missile detection system, bulletproof windows in the primary bedroom and on the bridge, an anti-paparazzi shield, and, when all of that fails, a mini-submarine that can take a few VIPs 164 feet under the ocean’s surface.

1. History Supreme ($4.8 billion)

History Supreme has never actually been seen in a major port, and rumors suggest that the yacht may not be real and instead just a publicity stunt. Reportedly owned by Malaysia’s richest man, Robert Kuok, and designed by Stuart Hughes in the UK, the yacht is only a paltry 100 feet long. Its worth is said to be derived from its lavish finishes, including a statue constructed from genuine Tyrannosaurus rex bones, a liquor bottle embedded with an 18.5-carat diamond, and a primary bedroom with one wall made from meteorite and another from a 24-karat gold Aquavista Panoramic Wall Aquarium. If you see it somewhere, let us know.

Frequently Asked Questions

How much is Jeff Bezos’s yacht?

Most Expensive Yachts

This is why people like Amazon founder Jeff Bezos work to keep their yachts out of the public eye. Though we are not including Jeff Bezos’s yacht, Koru (Maori for “coil”), in this list because it is a sailing yacht and thus excluded from the realm of these motor yachts, it created controversy in the Netherlands when its presence became known. Jeff Bezos’s abided the $500 million price tag of Oceanco, the Dutch custom yacht builder, to create the 417-foot megayacht. But when the company, at Bezos’s behest, requested that a local bridge be dismantled to make way for its gigantic mast on its journey from the shipyard, public sentiment turned against the cento-billionaire, and Oceano shelved its request. Maybe a port like Monaco would be more accommodating?

Also not on this list is the world’s largest private yacht, reportedly owned by Alisher Usmanov. Though size and cost typically scale in the world of superyachts, this is not always the case (see #1 in this list.) Also, Somnio, the 728-feet dream-monikered yacht liner that tops our list of the world’s largest private yachts , isn’t quite done being constructed. And it is not, like most of the largest superyachts, privately owned by one individual or family—it’s a kind of floating condo, with 39 eight-figure homes available to potential owners solely by invitation.

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the submarine yacht

The U.S. Navy's Ohio-Class Submarine Is a Real Underwater Powerhouse

Summary and Key Points: Commissioned in 1981, the USS Ohio (SSBN-726) marked a significant advancement in the U.S. Navy's strategic deterrence, being the first of eighteen nuclear-powered Ohio-class submarines. Initially equipped with Trident C4 missiles, later boats carried the advanced Trident D5.

-The Ohio-class offered improvements in speed, stealth, and maintenance over previous classes. With capabilities to carry 24 missiles and featuring advanced sonar and weapon systems, these submarines became integral to the U.S. nuclear deterrent.

-Despite entering service in the Reagan era, the Ohio-class remains vital, with life extensions planned to ensure operational readiness until their replacements are fully deployed.

USS Ohio: The Game-Changing Submarine of the U.S. Navy

When the USS Ohio (SSBN-726) was commissioned in 1981, the nuclear ballistic submarine was heralded by then-Vice President George H.W. Bush as providing "a new dimension in our nation's strategic deterrence." The submarine, which had been laid down five years earlier, was the first in a new class of eighteen nuclear-powered SSBNs built for the United States Navy.

The first eight boats were delivered with Trident C4 missiles, while the fourteen to follow were armed with the longer-range Trident D5 – a weapon that has been touted as being as accurate as ground-based ICBMs and with the same response time and greater destructive effect.

Ohio-Class: Major Leap Forward

The Ohio-class has been seen as a major improvement over the previous Lafayette-class SSBNs, and the boats were faster, quieter, and easier to maintain. The crew facilities were also enhanced and included two onboard libraries and other amenities.

Until the deployment of the Soviet Union's mighty Typhoon-class, Ohio was the largest submarine in the world. The U.S. Navy's boats displaced 16,764 tons, were 560 feet (170 meters) in length and were 42 feet (13 meters) at the beam.

Made in Connecticut

The Ohio-class submarines were constructed between 1981 and 1997 by the Groton, Connecticut-based Electric Boat Division of General Dynamics. The U.S. Navy's submarines of the Pacific Fleet are currently based at Bangor, Washington, while those of the Atlantic Fleet is based at King's Bay, Georgia. The SSBNs were also developed to operate for fifteen years or longer between overhauls.

Doing More With Fewer Submarines

As each Ohio-class was able to carry twenty-four Trident missiles, compared to the sixteen carried by a Lafayette, the United States Navy was able to replace thirty-one of the former boats with just eighteen Ohio-class subs. Because there are fewer subs, the Navy works hard to ensure that each is at sea as much as possible.

During deployment, the submarines spend approximately seventy days at sea, followed by twenty-five days in the dock for overhaul. Each of the SSBNs spends at least sixty-six percent of the time at sea.

To reduce the time in port for crew turnover and replenishment, the submarines were built with three large logistics hatches – and these provide large-diameter supply and repair openings. The hatches allow the sailors to rapidly transfer supply pallets, equipment replacement modules, and other mechanical components quickly.

Each of the SSBNs has two crews – "Blue" and "Gold" – which alternate manning the boats while on patrol. The two sets of crews each consist of fifteen officers, including its own captain, and one hundred forty four enlisted sailors. This further maximizes the SSBN's strategic availability while reducing the number of boats that are required to meet the strategic requirements and yet allow for proper crew training, readiness and morale.

Under Pressure

The Ohio-class submarines feature a streamlined outer hull that enables the boat to move silently through the water at high speed, while the interior pressure hull provides an area that is large enough to accommodate the weapons, crew, and equipment.

Each of the submarines are powered by a GE S8G pressure water reactor with two turbines that provide 45 MW (60,000 shp), which drive a single shaft. The boats are able to maintain a top speed of 18 knots when surfaced and 25 knots submerged.

The Ohio-class was also designed with four 533mm (21-inch) torpedo tubs with a Mk 118 digital torpedo fire control systems and armed with Gould Mk 48s, a heavyweight weapon with a 640 pound (290 kg) warhead.

The boats were also designed to carry an advanced sonar suite that included the IBM BQQ 6 passive search sonar, Raytheon BQS 13, BQS 15 active and passive high-frequency sonar, and an active Raytheon BQR 19 navigation sonar.

A Big Change for the Ohio-Class

Per the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II), which was agreed in June 1992, the number of U.S. Navy strategic missile submarines was limited to fourteen beginning in 2002. Four of the boats of the Ohio-class – including the lead boat – were converted to conventionally-armed nuclear-powered (SSGNs) submarines.

USS Ohio began the conversion in November 2002 and rejoined the fleet in January 2006, following her sea trials. The other converted boats of the class included USS Michigan (SSGN-727), USS Florida (SSGN-728), and USS Georgia (SSGN-729).

Sticking Around

Despite entering service in the Reagan era, the Ohio-class remains a crucial component of the United States nuclear deterrent triad .

In November 2020, the U.S. Navy announced that it was looking at extending the lives of the Ohio-class submarines again – beyond the now 42-year planned life for the SSBNs – to add a little more capability for combatant commanders and a little more cushion in case of delays fielding their replacement.

Expert Biography

Peter Suciu is a Michigan-based writer who has contributed to more than four dozen magazines, newspapers and websites. He regularly writes about military hardware, and is the author of several books on military headgear including A Gallery of Military Headdress , which is available on Amazon.com. Peter is also a Contributing Writer for Forbes.

All images are Creative Commons. 

Ohio-Class Submarine SSGN

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US submarine pulls into Guantanamo Bay a day after Russian warships arrive in Cuba

A fleet of Russian warships reached Cuban waters on Wednesday ahead of planned military exercises in the Caribbean in what some see as a projection of strength as tensions grow over Western support for Ukraine. (AP Video shot by Ariel Fernández and Osvaldo Angulo)

Russia's Kazan nuclear-powered submarine arrives at the port of Havana, Cuba, Wednesday, June 12, 2024. A fleet of Russian warships reached Cuban waters on Wednesday ahead of planned military exercises in the Caribbean. (AP Photo/Ariel Ley)

Russia’s Kazan nuclear-powered submarine arrives at the port of Havana, Cuba, Wednesday, June 12, 2024. A fleet of Russian warships reached Cuban waters on Wednesday ahead of planned military exercises in the Caribbean. (AP Photo/Ariel Ley)

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People watch the Russian Navy Admiral Gorshkov frigate arrive at the port of Havana, Cuba, Wednesday, June 12, 2024. A fleet of Russian warships reached Cuban waters on Wednesday ahead of planned military exercises in the Caribbean. (AP Photo/Ariel Ley)

WASHINGTON (AP) — A U.S. Navy submarine has arrived in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in a show of force as a fleet of Russian warships gather for planned military exercises in the Caribbean.

U.S. Southern Command said the USS Helena, a nuclear-powered fast attack submarine, pulled into the waters near the U.S. base in Cuba on Thursday, just a day after a Russian frigate, a nuclear-powered submarine, an oil tanker and a rescue tug crossed into Havana Bay after drills in the Atlantic Ocean.

The stop is part of a “routine port visit” as the submarine travels through Southern Command’s region, it said in a social media post.

Other U.S. ships also have been tracking and monitoring the Russian drills, which Pentagon officials say do not represent a threat to the United States.

“This is not a surprise. We’ve seen them do these type of port calls before,” Pentagon spokeswoman Sabrina Singh said Wednesday when asked about the Russian drills. “We of course take it seriously, but these exercises don’t pose a threat to the United States.”

The exercises, however, come less than two weeks after President Joe Biden authorized Ukraine to use U.S.-provided weapons to strike inside Russia to protect Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest city. Russian President Vladimir Putin then suggested his military could respond with “asymmetrical steps” elsewhere in the world.

Am aerial view showing the site of a landslide, caused by severe weather and heavy rain in the Misox valley, in Sorte village, Lostallo, southern Switzerland on Sunday June 23, 2024. Authorities in Switzerland say rescuers have found the body of one of three people who had gone missing on Saturday after massive thunderstorms and rainfall in the southeast of the county caused a rockslide. (Michael Buholzer/Keystone via AP)

Singh said it wouldn’t be a surprise to see more Russian activity around the United States in such global exercises. The drills are in international waters, and U.S. officials expect the Russian ships to remain in the region through the summer and possibly also stop in Venezuela.

Russia is a longtime ally of Venezuela and Cuba, and its warships and aircraft have periodically made forays into the Caribbean.

Russian ships have occasionally docked in Havana since 2008, when a group of Russian vessels entered Cuban waters in what state media described as the first such visit in almost two decades. In 2015, a reconnaissance and communications ship arrived unannounced in Havana a day before the start of discussions between U.S. and Cuban officials on the reopening of diplomatic relations.

the submarine yacht

Watch CBS News

What we know about the tourist sub that disappeared on an expedition to the Titanic

By Emily Mae Czachor

Updated on: June 23, 2023 / 11:35 PM EDT / CBS News

Five people on board the tourist  submarine that disappeared  on an expedition to explore the  Titanic shipwreck  over the weekend did not survive a "catastrophic loss of the pressure chamber," officials said Thursday.

The announcement came after the U.S. Coast Guard said the  massive search  underway in the North Atlantic had located a debris field on the sea floor, which was confirmed to be pieces of the missing sub .

"The debris field is consistent with a catastrophic implosion of the vessel," Rear Adm. John Mauger of the Coast Guard said at a briefing, offering "deepest condolences to the families." A spokesperson for OceanGate Expeditions, the company behind the voyage, told reporters that the passengers, including OceanGate CEO Stockton Rush, "have sadly been lost."

Here's what we know so far about the submersible craft and what led up to this point.

What happened?

A five-person crew on a submersible named Titan, owned by OceanGate Expeditions, submerged on a dive to the Titanic wreckage site Sunday morning, and the crew of the Polar Prince research ship lost contact with the sub about an hour and 45 minutes later, the Coast Guard   said . 

The Coast Guard first alerted mariners about the missing sub Sunday night, saying a "21 foot submarine" with a white hull was overdue and giving its last known position. "VESSELS IN VICINITY REQUESTED TO KEEP A SHARP LOOKOUT, ASSIST IF POSSIBLE," the alert message read.

The sub was lost in an area about 900 miles east of Cape Cod, in the North Atlantic, in water with a depth of about 13,000 feet, which is about level with the depth of the Titanic wreck . Amid growing concern about its  dwindling supply of breathable air , search and rescue efforts by a unified command composed of several international agencies ramped up accordingly.

The five people aboard included an operator — later identified as Stockton Rush, the CEO of OceanGate Expeditions — and four mission specialists, a term the company uses for its passengers, who paid up to $250,000 for a seat.

For days, the fate of the sub and its passengers was a mystery.

But after the debris was found, a U.S. Navy official said the Navy had detected "an acoustic anomaly consistent with an implosion" shortly after the sub lost contact with the surface Sunday, CBS News national security correspondent David Martin reported. The information was relayed to the Coast Guard, which used it to narrow the radius of the search area, the official said.

Such an implosion, under the intense pressure of the depths of the sea , would have destroyed the vessel almost instantly, experts explained.

"in a fraction of a second, it's gone," Will Kohnen, chairman of the professional group the Marine Technology Society Submarine Committee, told the Reuters news agency. 

"It implodes inwards in a matter of a thousandth of a second," Kohnen said. "And it's probably a mercy, because that was probably a kinder end than the unbelievably difficult situation of being four days in a cold, dark and confined space. So, this would have happened very quickly. I don't think anybody even had the time to realize what happened." 

The Coast Guard is leading the investigation into the incident, and the National Transportation Safety Board  said Friday  it will assist.   

Who were the passengers aboard the sub? 

CBS News confirmed that the five people aboard the submersible were  Hamish Harding , a 59-year-old British billionaire, business owner and explorer; British-Pakistani businessman Shahzada Dawood and his son, Suleman; French explorer Paul-Henri Nargeolet, who had made multiple dives over the years to explore the Titanic; and Stockton Rush, the CEO of OceanGate Expeditions, who was serving as pilot.

Photos of 5 passengers who were aboard the OceanGate Titan submersible

Just ahead of the Coast Guard briefing Thursday afternoon, a statement issued by OceanGate spokesperson Andrew Von Kerens offered condolences to the families of the Titan crew and recognized that all five people on board the submersible were believed to be dead.

"These men were true explorers who shared a distinct spirit of adventure, and a deep passion for exploring and protecting the world's oceans," the company said in the statement. "Our hearts are with these five souls and every member of their families during this tragic time. We grieve the loss of life and joy they brought to everyone they knew."

When the Coast Guard confirmed the sub's likely implosion on Thursday, Mauger said they were communicating with consulates general in both the U.K. and France.

The Dawood family, of the large Pakistan-based global business conglomerate Dawood Group, issued a statement Tuesday confirming their family members were on the expedition.

"Please continue to keep the departed souls and our family in your prayers during this difficult time of mourning," the Hussain and Kulsum Dawood family said Thursday in a statement through the Dawood Foundation. "We are truly grateful to all those involved in the rescue operations. ... The immense love and support we receive continues to help us endure this unimaginable loss."

Nargeolet, a renowned French explorer and former diver for the French Navy who was part of the first expedition to visit the Titanic wreck in 1987, was returning for another dive aboard the Titan submersible. 

In a  Facebook  post on Monday, Rory Golden, an explorer who became the first Irish diver to visit the Titanic wreckage in 2000, said he was part of the voyage but was not on the submersible that went missing.

Search and rescue efforts

Authorities  said  early Thursday morning that a Canadian vessel, Horizon Arctic, had deployed a  remotely operated underwater vehicle that reached the sea floor . The ROV ultimately located what the Coast Guard originally described as a debris field on the sea floor, which included identifiable pieces of the sub, authorities confirmed that afternoon.

"This morning, an ROV, or remote operated vehicle, from the vessel Horizon Arctic, discovered the tail cone of the Titan submersible approximately 1,600 feet from the bow of the Titanic on the sea floor," said Mauger at a news briefing. "The ROV subsequently found additional debris. In consultation with experts from within the unified command, the debris is consistent with the catastrophic loss of the pressure chamber."

"Upon this determination, we immediately notified the families," he added. "On behalf of the United States Coast Guard and the entire unified command, I offer my deepest condolences to the families. I can only imagine what this has been like for them and I hope that this discovery provides some solace during this difficult time."

Mauger said authorities were "still working to develop the details for the timeline involved with this casualty and the response," and referenced the "incredibly complex operating environment along the sea floor, over two miles beneath the surface."

Paul Hankins, an undersea expert for the U.S. Navy, explained during the news conference that crews discovered "five different major pieces of debris that told us that it was the remains of the Titan." These pieces included, initially, the nose cone, which was outside of the pressure hull. 

"We then found a large debris field," Hankins said. "Within that large debris field, we found the front end bell of the pressure hull. That was our first indication that there was a catastrophic event."

A second, smaller debris field was located shortly after, and the debris found there "comprised the totality of that pressure vessel," Hankins said. 

"The debris field is consistent with a catastrophic implosion of the vessel," he said, adding that the team will continue to map the debris field area.

Asked by a reporter what the prospects were for recovering the passengers, Mauger said, "This is an incredibly unforgiving environment down there on the sea floor, and the debris is consistent with a catastrophic implosion of the vessel. So we'll continue to work and continue to search the area down there, but I don't have an answer for prospects at this time."

Discovering the Titan debris came after multiple agencies from the U.S. and Canada spent days scouring thousands of square miles of open ocean in search of the missing sub.

The U.S. Coast Guard announced Wednesday that  underwater noises were detected  in the search area and that searches involving ROVs were  focusing on the area where the noises were heard .

On Wednesday, three more vessels had arrived to join the search, including one with side-scan sonar capabilities designed to create images of large sections of the sea floor, the Coast Guard said in a  tweet . That vessel began conducting search patterns alongside at least two others, as multiple military and other agencies worked together under a unified command. 

Frederick said Wednesday there were five "surface assets" involved in the search , and another five were expected to join the operation within the next 24 to 48 hours. He said the team also had two ROVs "actively searching," with several more due to arrive to join the search Thursday.

The Coast Guard  said  it had C-130 aircraft searching for the sub, and that the Rescue Coordination Center Halifax was assisting with a P-8 Poseidon aircraft, which has underwater detection capabilities. Canadian P-3s were also involved in the operation and deployed sonar buoys.

Just after midnight Wednesday, officials said  aircraft had detected underwater noises  in the search area, and underwater search operations were relocated as a result, though the origin of the noises remained unknown. The sounds were picked up several times Tuesday night and Wednesday morning, according to the Coast Guard. 

"With respect to the noises, specifically, we don't know what they are, to be frank with you," Frederick said. "The P-3 detected noises, that's why they're up there, that's why they're doing what they're doing, that's why there are sonar buoys in the water."

News of the vanished submersible and subsequent rescue mission originally broke Monday morning. At the time, Lt. Jordan Hart of the Coast Guard in Boston told CBS News that personnel there were leading the rescue mission, and focusing on waters off Newfoundland in eastern Canada. 

Map showing the point where the RMS Titanic sank

The Boston Regional Coordination Center was managing the rescue operation, as the location of the Titanic shipwreck falls within the Boston coordination center's territory, according to a  map  of jurisdictions along the East Coast of North America.

That combined search area grew to about twice the size of the state of Connecticut, and the subsurface search extended down as far as 2 and a half miles deep, Frederick said, stressing that the search and rescue teams were dealing with an incredibly complex set of circumstances.

"We also have to factor in the ever-changing weather conditions, currents and sea states that expand the search area every hour," he said earlier in the week. "There's an enormous complexity associated with this case due to the location being so far offshore and the coordination between multiple agencies and nations. We greatly appreciate the outpouring of support and offers to provide additional equipment."

What caused the noises?

Frederick acknowledged that the sounds detected underwater by Canadian aircraft could have been caused by multiple sources. 

Following the discovery of the sub debris on the sea floor, a U.S. Navy source told CBS News that the implosion would be inconsistent with banging noises heard at 30-minute intervals. Those noises, the official said, are now assessed as having come from other ships in the area.

Carl Hartsfield, an expert in underwater acoustics and the director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, which is on-site at the search area as a consultant, explained that it can be challenging to differentiate between "human sounds" and "nature sounds" coming from beneath the surface.

"The ocean is a very complex place, obviously, human sounds, nature sounds, and it's very difficult to discern what the sources of those noises are at times," Hartsfield said. 

Before the sub was found, Chris Roman, an associate professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island, told CBS News that, technically, it was possible that sounds from inside a submersible could have been detected, but that wasn't the only potential source of the noise.

"Sound travels very efficiently underwater. If people were intentionally making noises within the sub, it's very likely they could be detected with a sound buoy, and that position can be translated into a new search area," Roman said. But he also noted that, as Frederick mentioned in his briefing, "there's a lot of other things in the ocean that make noises."

The submarine

The unique submersible craft that disappeared was owned by OceanGate Expeditions , a company that deploys manned submarines for deep sea exploration and has in the past advertised this particular sub's voyages to carry tourists down to the wreckage of the RMS Titanic for $250,000 per seat. 

File photo of the OceanGate Explorations' submersible

More than a century after the Titanic sank in April 1912, the wreck lies on the ocean floor about 400 miles southeast of the Newfoundland coast. 

OceanGate said recently on its website and on social media that its expedition to the shipwreck was "underway," describing the seven-night trip as a "chance to step outside of everyday life and discover something truly extraordinary." In addition to one ongoing expedition, the company had planned two others for the summer of next year, according to the site. 

Because of the sub's oxygen capacity, it can only be fully submerged for a portion of the weeklong voyage. The sub has emergency oxygen and a 96-hour sustainment capability if there's an emergency aboard, Mauger said.

In a statement Monday after news broke of the missing sub, OceanGate confirmed the missing submersible was theirs and that a rescue operation had been launched to find and recover it. The company said it was "exploring and mobilizing all options to bring the crew back safely." 

"For some time, we have been unable to establish communications with one of our submersible exploration vehicles which is currently visiting the wreck site of the Titanic," said Andrew Von Kerens, a spokesperson for OceanGate. "We pray for the safe return of the crew and passengers, and we will provide updates as they are available."

Inside the Titan

Dubbed the Titan, OceanGate's deep sea vessel, was said to be the only five-person submersible in the world with the capabilities to reach the Titanic's depth, nearly 2 and a half miles beneath the ocean's surface, CBS "Sunday Mornings" correspondent David Pogue reported last year. 

BBC News reported that the vessel typically carries a pilot, three paying guests and another person described as a "content expert" by the company.  OceanGate's site says the Titan, weighing around 23,000 pounds, has the ability to reach depths of up to 4,000 meters — over 13,000 feet — and has about 96 hours of life support for a crew of five people.

Last summer, Pogue accompanied the Titan crew on the journey from Newfoundland to the site where the Titanic as lost. Several dive attempts had to be canceled when weather conditions indicated it may not be safe. At the time, he described the Titan as a one-of-a-kind submersible craft made from thick carbon fiber and coated on both ends by a dome of titanium. 

In 2018, a former employee of OceanGate Expeditions, submersible pilot David Lochridge, voiced concerns about the safety of the Titanic tour sub and filed a lawsuit against the company . 

Lochridge, who was fired by OceanGate and sued by the company for allegedly disclosing confidential information in a whistleblower complaint to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, said in a court filing that the Titan would carry passengers as deep as 4,000 meters even though that depth had never been reached in a sub with its type of carbon fiber hull. According to his claim, he learned the vessel was built to withstand a certified pressure of 1,300 meters, although OceanGate planned to take passengers to 4,000 meters.  

Lochridge was not the only skeptic. The same year his complaint was filed, other industry leaders approached OceanGate with questions about the safety of its submersible. William Kohnen, president and CEO of Hydrospace Group, outlined his concerns in a 2018 letter to OceanGate, originally published by The New York Times, that warned of potentially "catastrophic" issues with the "experimental" sub, which was not certified. Kohnen told CBS News on Wednesday that although he did not send it, the letter was leaked to OceanGate and prompted the company to "amend a number of details that made sure the public knew" the submersible had not received its certification.

"The letter to Oceangate was meant as a professional courtesy to the CEO expressing industry concerns that the company was not following a traditional classification route for the certification of the submersible," Kohnen said. "The industry operates along an established and dynamic set of safety regulations and protocols that have served the submersible industry worldwide."

Ahead of his planned dive last summer, Pogue recalled signing paperwork that read, in part, "This experimental vessel has not been approved or certified by any regulatory body, and could result in physical injury, emotional trauma, or death." 

Space inside the submarine was similar to the interior of a minivan, and, with just one button and a video game controller used to steer it, the vessel "seemed improvised, with off-the-shelf components," Pogue said.

On his voyage, the  sub was lost for a few hours , Pogue said.

"There's no GPS underwater, so the surface ship is supposed to guide the sub to the shipwreck by sending text messages," he reported at the time. "But on this dive, communications somehow broke down."

You may remember that the @OceanGateExped sub to the #Titanic got lost for a few hours LAST summer, too, when I was aboard…Here’s the relevant part of that story. https://t.co/7FhcMs0oeH pic.twitter.com/ClaNg5nzj8 — David Pogue (@Pogue) June 19, 2023

Were conditions right for the dive?

G. Michael Harris, founder of RMS Titanic, Inc. — a company that salvages artifacts from the Titanic wreckage — told CBS News on Tuesday evening that Titanic expeditions are generally conducted within a "three-month weather window" between the end of June and September, when the ocean waters are at their calmest.

Harris, who has led several expeditions to the wreckage site, questioned why the Titan's dive was conducted as early as Sunday.

"Right now, it's really early in the season. I'm not sure why OceanGate went out this soon," Harris said.

Harris also noted that when he conducts diving expeditions, he uses a transponder system, something that he believed the Titan likely did not have.

"It's a net that we navigate in so that we know where we are at all times on the wreck of the Titanic," Harris said. "We're in constant communication with the vessel up top."

Harris said the Titan was "put on a sled and dumped in the water and their only navigation is from the support ship up top."

"I don't adhere to that myself, personally," Harris said. 

Harris noted that he has worked with Nargeolet, who is listed as director of underwater research for RMS Titanic, for the past 30 years, describing him as an "all-around good guy."

Who was Hamish Harding?

Harding, the first of the passengers to be publicly identified, had previously posted on social media about joining the Titanic shipwreck expedition.

In a post shared to his  Facebook  page on Saturday, Harding wrote: "I am proud to finally announce that I joined OceanGate Expeditions for their RMS TITANIC Mission as a mission specialist on the sub going down to the Titanic."

I am proud to finally announce that I joined OceanGate Expeditions for their RMS TITANIC Mission as a mission specialist... Posted by Hamish Harding on  Saturday, June 17, 2023

"Due to the worst winter in Newfoundland in 40 years, this mission is likely to be the first and only manned mission to the Titanic in 2023," Harding's Facebook post continued. "A weather window has just opened up and we are going to attempt a dive tomorrow. We started steaming from St. Johns, Newfoundland, Canada yesterday and are planning to start dive operations around 4am tomorrow morning. Until then we have a lot of preparations and briefings to do."

That post was Harding's most recent social media update related to the submarine trip. It included multiple photographs of him, including one that showed Harding signing his name on a banner that read "Titanic Expedition Mission V" and another that pictured the submersible vessel itself.

Richard Garriott de Cayeux, president of The Explorers Club, where Harding helped found the board of trustees, said they had spoken just a week earlier about the expedition. 

"When I saw Hamish last week at the Global Exploration Summit, his excitement about this expedition was palpable. I know he was looking forward to conducting research at the site," he said in a letter to club members after the sub's disappearance.

Harding was a veteran adventure tourist who also  traveled to space  aboard a Blue Origin rocket last year. Two years ago, he made it to the deepest part of the ocean, traveling with U.S. explorer  Victor Vescovo  to the floor of the Mariana Trench, 35,876 feet below the sea surface. That trip, in a $48 million submersible, earned both explorers the Guinness World Record for the  longest distance traveled  at the deepest part of the ocean by a crewed vessel.

"It was potentially scary, but I was so busy doing so many things — navigating and triangulating my position — that I did not really have time to be scared," Harding told  The Week  after that excursion.

This is an updated version of an article originally published on Monday, June 19. Reporting contributed by Emmet Lyons, Roxana Saberi, Alex Sundby, Aimee Picchi, Aliza Chasan, Li Cohen, Caroline Hinson, Anna Noryskiewicz, Analisa Novak and other CBS News staff.

  • Newfoundland
  • United States Coast Guard

Emily Mae Czachor is a reporter and news editor at CBSNews.com. She covers breaking news, often focusing on crime and extreme weather. Emily Mae has previously written for outlets including the Los Angeles Times, BuzzFeed and Newsweek.

More from CBS News

Pressure on Titanic sub would have been 'enormous' in final moments, experts say

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The final moments of the Titan would have been swift – and unleashed amid a force difficult to comprehend.

A North Atlantic rescue mission undertaken by at least four countries found that the submersible was destroyed by a likely implosion, scattering its debris on the ocean floor near the doomed luxury liner Titanic . Parts of the sub were found about 1,600 feet from the Titanic, nearly 12,500 feet below the surface in icy, dark waters.

It will be difficult to know at what depth the Titan sub became overwhelmed . But even at higher depths than where it was found, any defect in the hull would have allowed the Titan to be crushed in milliseconds, experts in physics and submarines told USA TODAY Thursday.

Stockton Rush, owner and founder of OceanGate Expeditions, was piloting the Titan with a group of four passengers when the submersible lost contact Sunday with its support ship about an hour and forty-five minutes after starting its dive.

"The pressure inward on the sub would have been enormous," said Luc Wille, a professor and chair of physics at Florida Atlantic University. That likely explains what appears to have been the implosion of the vessel, said Wille and others.

The Coast Guard also confirmed to USA TODAY Thursday that a Navy analysis of acoustic data detected "an anomaly consistent with implosion or explosion" in the vicinity around the time the Titan lost contact.

While the experts grieve the loss of the Titan and its passengers, they describe extreme and unforgiving conditions at the depth where two wrecks now lie some 2.5 miles below the ocean’s surface. They say it will be crucial to the families and future ocean exploration to learn as much as possible about what caused the implosion that claimed five lives.

Killed in the incident were Rush, Pakistani businessman Shahzada Dawood and his son Suleman, French explorer Paul-Henry Nargeolet and British explorer Hamish Harding.

How intense is the pressure at the depth of the Titanic?

Nearly 380 times greater than at the surface, Wille said.

It’s a familiar concept to divers, who feel the pressure on their bodies as they descend and must regulate the air they're breathing accordingly. Wille said the rule of thumb is one additional "atmosphere" of pressure for every 30 feet of water.

“People always underestimate that impact,” Wille said. Because water is so much more dense than air, “pressure builds up much faster than it would when we’re going up or down in the atmosphere.” 

The diver with the deepest dive ever recorded reached 1,090 feet. The remains of the Titanic are 12,500 feet deep. Experts say the pressure at that depth is between 370-380 bars. 

Wille compared the pressure on the Titan to a classic physics demonstration. If you remove all the oil or water from a sealed metal can, it will collapse under the pressure of just one atmosphere of pressure at sea level, Wille said. “Just imagine what several hundred atmospheres (of pressure) will do.”

“The pressure inward on the sub would have been enormous,” he said.

What is an implosion? 

The opposite of an explosion. Rather than pressure building on the inside and causing something to explode, the ocean generates incredible pressure on the outside of a vessel, collapsing walls inward. 

How could intense pressure cause the submersible to implode?

Experts who did not have direct knowledge of what happened to the Titan told USA TODAY it sounds like the hull gave way, either due to a structural defect or failure, or fatigue of the materials in the hull. Even the slightest defect in the hull could have made the Titan vulnerable.

When you repeatedly pressurize material such as the walls of the sub, “you’re stressing it out,” Wille said. “You’re squeezing the atoms that make up the material, putting that material under stress and then letting it go.” 

Metal fatigue is the reason you can work the flip top of a soda can back and forth to pop it off, he said.

Even high-grade military submarines don’t wander around the ocean at full depth because it's just too dangerous, said Eric Fusil, a submarine expert and associate professor in the University of Adelaide’s School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering.

It would take something like "20 milliseconds to crush a hull" at the depths the Titan was operating in, Fusil said. "So it's nearly instantaneous and it's absolutely very, very noisy."

Although the Titan’s composite hull is built to withstand intense deep-sea pressures, any defect in its shape or build would compromise its integrity and increase the risk of implosion, said Professor Stefan Williams, a marine robotics and underwater vessel expert at the University of Sydney.

Did anyone hear a 'catastrophic implosion?'

The Navy detected the "anomaly" after analyzing acoustic data collected in the vicinity on Sunday, the Coast Guard told USA TODAY Thursday night. "While not definitive," the information was immediately shared to assist with the search and rescue mission, said Briana Carter with Coast Guard public affairs.

Listening devices weren’t deployed in buoys at the site until after the Coast Guard arrived, but that would have been too late to pick up an implosion if it occurred during the Titan’s descent or shortly after. 

The Titan was only about 21 feet long, but any implosion would have created a very loud sound that would have traveled through the water and might also have been picked up by an ocean seismometer somewhere, Fusil said. 

When the Navy completed ship shock trials of a vessel with 10,000 pounds of explosives in the Atlantic off Florida in July 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey detected that explosion at the surface . A search of its public database shows the Survey’s seismometer network had not registered any earthquake-like explosions in the North Atlantic over the last week.

Have other vessels imploded?

Yes. In 1963, the USS Thresher, a nuclear-powered submarine, was conducting deep-diving tests around 220 miles east of Cape Cod when it lost power and imploded, taking the lives of 129 sailors and civilian technicians. Its remains were located about 8,400 feet below the surface, and a Court of Inquiry concluded the sub likely sank due to a piping failure and subsequent loss of power and the inability to blow ballast tanks fast enough to avoid sinking. 

Why is it important to know what happened? 

The engineering and regulation of deep-sea submersibles remain somewhat uncharted territory, Fusil said. And because the Titan was operating in international waters, it was “technically free from governance by any single nation’s regulations.” 

Although various professional groups have proposed rules for commercial sub design, following those rules remains voluntary, and dependent on what insurance companies require, Fusil said. "It’s time to acknowledge that going deep is as complex, if not more complex, than going into space – and that ensuring the safety of submersibles ought to be more than a matter of choice."

Debris field confirmed to be missing Titanic submarine. This is where it was finally found

The Russian submarine that just showed up off Cuba is one of a new class of subs that has worried the US and NATO for years

  • Russian naval ships arrived in Cuba Wednesday ahead of military exercises in the Caribbean.
  • One of the vessels, the submarine Kazan, is one of a new class that has worried the US and NATO.
  • The Yasen-class subs are hard to track and armed for attacks against land- and sea-based targets.

Insider Today

One of Russia's most advanced new submarines has pulled up off the coast of Cuba ahead of planned military exercises in the area.

The Kazan, a nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine, is one of a relatively new class of subs that has worried the US and Western militaries for years because of its stealth and strike capabilities .

Three Russian ships, along with the Kazan, arrived in Cuba Wednesday for a five-day official visit before a large, simultaneous air and maritime exercise in the Caribbean. The deployment includes the Admiral Gorshkov frigate, which is armed with Zircon hypersonic missiles, another challenge for Western militaries.

While US officials have said they're monitoring the vessels and don't anticipate any imminent danger in the region, the Kazan's arrival is notable. US and NATO officials have long expressed concern over the capabilities of the Kazan and other subs like it.

Russia's Yasen-class submarines, like the Kazan, are formidable threats within Russia's navy, which has long boasted a rather capable submarine fleet. The Russians began work on the class during the Cold War , and the first sub in the class, the Severodvinsk, was commissioned late in 2013.

Around the time the Severodvinsk was commissioned, a Naval Sea Systems Command officer said at a symposium that going forward, the US would "be facing tough potential opponents," adding that "one only has to look at the Severodvinsk."

Later submarines featured updated designs and were designated as Yasen-M class vessels. The Kazan was the second sub of the Yasen class but the first of the new, upgraded subs. It is noticeably smaller and features a quieter nuclear reactor. Western officials have said that their naval forces have had trouble finding these subs or have at times lost track of them at sea.

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The subs' newer, more advanced features make them difficult to track, and they're heavily armed and capable of attacks against land- and sea-based targets with little to no warning. These boats can carry Oniks and Kalibr cruise missiles and, eventually, the new Zircon missiles.

The shift in capability with the emergence of the Yasen-M class submarines suggested a change in use. Per a 2021 Royal United Services Institute analysis , the Kazan's "capacity to launch a range of anti-ship and land attack missiles" suggests that "long-range strike missions appear to be superseding sea lines of communication (SLOC) interdiction as a primary task."

In 2021, US Air Force Gen. Glen VanHerck, the head of US Northern Command and North American Aerospace Defense Command, said that the subs "are designed to deploy undetected within cruise-missile range of our coastlines to threaten critical infrastructure during an escalating crisis."

VanHerck, along with other US officials, have said that the Yasen-class subs are a concern and " on par with ours " and repeatedly warned about the increasing presence of these vessels off of the US coast. A US naval intelligence official previously said that the Russian subs are "holding the United States at risk in some of their patrol areas."

Russia plans to build at least nine Yasen submarines in total, but there are indications that more could be on the way in the future .

Russia's deployment in Cuba serves multiple purposes. It comes before Caribbean air and maritime exercises, the first Russia has held in the area since 2019. It serves to strengthen Russia-Cuba ties, and it demonstrates a show of force to the US amid the war in Ukraine.

Tensions are particularly high after the US hesitantly agreed to allow Ukraine to use its long-range weapons to strike targets in Russian territory .

US officials have said that the appearance of these vessels in the area is not a direct response to those developments or an escalation, noting that Cuba has hosted Russian ships every year from 2013 to 2020, and the Russian exercises are routine.

The vessels in this group, however, are among Russia's most advanced or carrying newer weapons. In the past, NATO officials have flagged the Yasen-class submarines as "one of the big strategic challenges" the alliance faces.

Watch: Ukraine's sea drones vs. Russia's Black Sea Fleet

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