A wrecked wooden boat sits on the beach against a purple sky.

BELLE GARDEN, Tobago (AP) –Around 6:30 a.m. on May 28, 2021, a couple of miles from Belle Garden Beach on the Caribbean island of Tobago, a narrow white-and-blue boat drifted onto the horizon.

As it wobbled back and forth, fish gathered, feeding on the barnacles that had grown below the surface.

From a distance, it seemed no one was aboard. But as fishermen approached, they smelled death.

Inside were the decomposing bodies of more than a dozen Black men. No one knew where they were from, what brought them there, why they were aboard — and how or why they died. No one knew their names.

What is clear now, but wasn’t then, is this:

For nearly two years, The Associated Press assembled puzzle pieces from across three continents to uncover the story of this boat — and the people it carried from hope to death.

The vessel that reached Tobago was registered in Mauritania, a large and mostly deserted country in northwest Africa nearly 3,000 miles (4,800 km) away. Evidence found on the boat — and its style and color as a typical Mauritanian “pirogue”— suggested the dead were likely African migrants who were trying to reach Europe but got lost in the Atlantic.

In 2021, at least seven boats appearing to be from northwest Africa washed up in the Caribbean and in Brazil. All carried dead bodies.

These “ghost boats” — and likely many others that have vanished — are in part an unintended result of years of efforts and billions of dollars spent by Europe to stop crossings on the Mediterranean Sea. That crackdown, along with other factors such as economic disruption from the pandemic, pushed migrants to return to the far longer, more obscure and more dangerous Atlantic route to Europe from northwest Africa via the Canaries instead.

Arrivals on the Atlantic route jumped from 2,687 in 2019 to more than 22,000 two years later, according to Spain’s Interior Ministry. But for those to arrive, many more must have departed, said Pedro Vélez, an oceanographer at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography. Vélez wasn’t surprised to learn of migrant boats appearing in the Caribbean – that is where floating devices dropped by scientists on the West African coast naturally drift.

“The sea conditions there are extremely harsh,” he said. “Extremely harsh.”

In 2021, at least 1,109 people died or disappeared trying to reach the Canaries, according to the International Organization for Migration, the deadliest on record. But that’s likely a fraction of the real death toll. The men in the Tobago boat, for example, are not included in this number.

Other estimates are higher. Caminando Fronteras, a Spanish migrants’ rights organization, recorded more than 4,000 dead or missing on the Atlantic route in 2021, with at least 20 boats vanishing after departing from Mauritania.

These migrants are as invisible in death as they were in life. But even ghosts have families.

The AP investigation included interviews with dozens of relatives and friends, officials and forensic experts, as well as police documents and DNA testing. It found that 43 young men from Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and possibly other West African nations boarded the boat. AP has identified 33 of them by name.

They departed the Mauritanian port city of Nouadhibou in the middle of the night between Jan. 12 and 13, 2021. Clothing and DNA testing confirmed the identity of one of the bodies, bringing closure to one family and opening the way for others to seek the same.

The lack of political will and global resources to identify dead and disappeared migrants mean such resolutions, even partial ones, are rare. Each year, thousands of families wonder about the fate of loved ones who left their homes for Europe.

Few ever find out.

This is the story of one boat and the people it carried from hope to death.

A narrow white boat sits next to a road, with a rainbow across the sky in the background.

The Discovery

On the morning of May 28, 2021, Lance Biggart got a call from one of his fellow fishermen. A strange boat had appeared.

The 49-year-old Tobago native quickly reached his colleagues aboard his small but speedy boat, the Big Thunder. Dozens of fishermen joined him at the scene, filming the pirogue with their smartphones. Some continued fishing shiny mahi-mahi that had gathered around the corpses, life circling around death.

Biggart remembers being puzzled by how the boat could have survived Atlantic swells.

“A wave came, and the boat rocked so, so badly,” he recalls.

One of the dead men sat by the bow. The fishermen and police wondered if he was the last to die, moving away from the rest of the dead in the bottom of the boat. Biggart and his colleague were asked by the coast guard to tow the pirogue back to shore. A tractor pulled the boat out of the water.

Men in white overalls carefully removed 14 bodies, three skulls and other large bones one by one, placing the remains in 15 bags. Some victims were missing limbs or heads. The sun had mummified some parts, while the salt and water at the bottom of the boat had putrified others.

Recovered from the boat were clothing, 1,000 West African CFA francs (under $2) and a few euros. Police also found half a dozen corroded cellphones with SIM cards from Mali and Mauritania. Tobago’s Cyber Crime Unit extracted a contact list from one of the SIMs.

Police in Trinidad and Tobago passed the numbers on to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which reached out several times to the government of Mauritania. They never got an answer, they said. Mauritania’s Foreign Ministry did not respond to phone calls or repeated requests for comment by email from the AP.

In the weeks that followed, customers stopped buying Biggart’s fish, fearing the dead were victims of some sort of sorcery. Others made unfounded speculations: Were they Ebola victims whose bodies had been thrown in the boat and set adrift?

As a man of the sea himself, Biggart felt responsible.

“I have a friend who went to sea and never came back,” he says. “I don’t know the people and them. But I know the family will be hurting.”

Yet months later, unable to identify the victims, police rebranded the criminal investigation into a “humanitarian” case. The remains were kept at the morgue of the Forensic Science Center in Trinidad.

To this day, there they sit.

A woman bends down in front of a row of numbered evidence lockers.

A trail of clues

A striped soccer jersey. This piece of clothing and the others that follow are all dirty, crumpled, and laid flat on a brown piece of paper.

In 20 years as a forensic pathologist, Dr. Eslyn McDonald-Burris had never seen so many bodies arrive at the local mortuary in Tobago at once. Their apparent African descent reminded her of her enslaved ancestors.

“It’s kind of emotional for me, because I’m thinking why? What is happening here?” asked the soft-spoken Burris, who has since retired. “And then when I started looking at ocean currents. ... It’s the same currents that they used when they brought us here.” She concluded they most likely died of “dehydration and hypothermia as a consequence of being lost at sea.”

Opening the body bags one by one, Burris was opening a small window into each person’s life. She looked for anything to help answer questions: Who were they? Where were they trying to go? What happened on the boat?

One had prayer beads with a crescent and a star, Muslim symbols. Another carried in his pocket a small label with Arabic writing of a water bottle from Mauritania. Yet another wore a watch on his left wrist, still running even though the time and date were wrong. “5:32 Sun,” it read.

Most shared similar traits — “that sort of tall, slender look, long thin face,” Burris says. Many wore several layers of clothing, common for seafaring migrants. A few wore dark green weather-proof jackets and pants, typically used both by fishermen in West Africa and by migrants seeking to avoid detection by port authorities.

As Burris pulled back the layers of clothing, she found soccer jerseys and shorts with the insignia of European teams as well as the Football Federation of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. One man was dressed more formally, wearing a black button-down shirt with thin white stripes.

Another stood out to Burris. “A young man of African descent, slim build, dark complexion,” her autopsy report read.

He had short, dark-brown hair. His ears were “notably very small." His teeth were in good condition. His body was the most mummified of all, and his clothing was still relatively clean, suggesting he may have been one of the last to die.

“Down here we say a ‘sharp boy’,” Burris said, affectionately referring to his style.

He was found wearing distressed jeans, a Nike hoodie and a white patterned T-shirt underneath with some words on it — a lyric to a well-known Lionel Richie song.

It read: “HELLO, IS IT ME YOU’RE LOOKING FOR?”

A muddy wrinkled shirt is laid out on a brown piece of paper. Text on the shirt reads “Hello is it me you’re looking for”

An Aunt in France

Thousands of miles away, in the French city of Orléans, May Sow had all but given up hope of finding her nephew alive.

It was mid-January 2021, and Alassane Sow, 30, wasn’t answering his phone, leaving his family in both Mali and France desperate. May searched the internet for any trace of him.

A few days earlier, Alassane had told her over the phone that he was thinking of boarding a boat to Spain and, ultimately, to France to work, as some of his friends had done. His estranged father had also left for Spain. Smugglers charged 1,500 euros, and he had saved some money working as a security guard in Mauritania.

She thought it was a terrible idea. “It’s suicide,” she warned him. A family she knew from the Ivory Coast was mourning a relative who died trying to reach Europe.

Alassane said smugglers told him he would travel on a sturdy boat with a proper engine, not the flimsy overcrowded rubber boats often seen capsizing in the Mediterranean. But even if he made it, she told him, he wouldn’t be allowed to work legally in France.

“When I go to Paris, I see people, migrants sleeping outside, under tents,” May recalled.

Alassane wouldn’t hear of it. After all, his French family had a good life with stable careers that allowed them to send money back to their Mali village of Melga, to support his mother.

Alassane’s grandparents had immigrated to France from the former colony decades ago, leaving their eldest daughter, Alassane’s mother, back in Mali. They had six more children in France, including May.

When May and her siblings tried to bring Alassane’s mother over, she was an adult no longer eligible for family reunification. She applied for a visa for France eight times, only to be rejected each time.

The Sow family in France had tried to support Alassane in two projects back in Mali, in livestock and in commerce. Both ultimately failed in part because of the impact of climate change and a fragile economy in a country plagued by years of conflict and political instability. The convenience store he opened with their help hardly made enough money to feed his family.

He ultimately moved to Mauritania to make roughly 75 euros a month, May said. That wasn’t enough.

May said the “kind, serious and respectful” young man never asked his French relatives for more money. Prosperity was in Europe, and the only way he could afford to get there was by boat.

“I think in his head, he thought he didn’t have a choice,” May said.

A man stands on the beach wearing a striped button down shirt.

On the night between Jan. 12 and 13, 2021, he boarded a pirogue in Nouadhibou, Mauritania, headed to Spain’s Canary Islands, his family learned later.

After the initial silence came rumors, including one that his boat had been stopped in Morocco and the migrants sent to prison. May contacted a Malian community representative in Morocco to check prisons and morgues. No trace of Alassane.

She reached out to a page on Facebook called “Protect Migrants not Borders,” used by families of missing migrants to exchange information. That was when May realized her nephew was one of thousands disappearing each year en route to Europe.

Every day people posted about a missing person. Few were ever found.

Any tips she obtained were by word of mouth. There was no official information. She felt helpless.

Alassane’s mother, grandmother and wife held onto hope that he was alive, probably in prison somewhere, and couldn’t call. May was growing increasingly skeptical.

One night, she had a dream. She saw him dead with many people in the water, and she cried out for him.

In her nightmare, Alassane eventually opened his eyes but couldn’t speak. After that, she was sure they had shipwrecked. But she had no proof.

A few months later, her sister shared a news report about a Mauritanian boat found in Tobago with dead bodies inside. Then an AP reporter contacted her asking about the same. Could her nephew be among those?

He left in January. The boat was found in May. But except for the time frame, there was no evidence to suggest it was his boat. After all, the pirogues used by migrants departing Nouadhibou look the same.

A dock surrounded by fishing boats at dawn. Four fishermen are working and in and around the boats, wearing green jackets.

Following the trail

The contact list extracted from one of the SIM cards on a phone in the boat by authorities in Tobago contained 137 names.

The AP went down the list calling the numbers, asking those who replied if they knew anyone missing. One name kept coming up: Soulayman Soumaré, a taxi driver from Sélibaby in southern Mauritania, near the borders with Mali and Senegal.

The AP traveled to Sélibaby, a two-day drive from the fishing town of Nouadhibou on a strip of tarmac that cuts through a bleak desert, and spoke to dozens of relatives and friends to reconstruct what happened.

Soulayman had gone missing a year earlier, along with dozens of other young men from nearby villages. They had taken off from Nouadhibou on a boat carrying 43 people to the Canary Islands on the night of Jan. 12, 2021. It was the same boat that Alassane Sow boarded.

Forty-seven people were meant to have boarded the boat originally. Four men never got on. One, who spoke to the AP on condition of anonymity, confirmed that he and dozens of other relatives, friends and acquaintances from Sélibaby and two nearby villages had traveled to Nouadhibou. There, they waited in apartments arranged by smugglers. He heard more people from a town on the border of Mali and Mauritania would also be getting on the boat.

Finally, on Jan. 12, the smugglers called. They would be leaving for Spain that night.

To avoid attracting authorities’ attention, the migrants split into smaller groups and left separately on different pirogues. They were to meet in the ocean and all transfer to a larger pirogue bound for the Canaries.

In Nouadhibou, hundreds of fishermen zip in and out all day and night, and port authorities struggle to inspect every boat for migrants. But when they saw four men allegedly going fishing without the typical dark green overalls, police stopped them.

Little did they know that their lives had just been spared.

A group of men step into the surf, with fishing boats visible in the distance.

Families, still waiting

Just as few people in Tobago had ever heard of Mauritania before, families in Mauritania had never heard of Tobago. When shown the island on a map, with the Atlantic Ocean separating both nations, many gasped.

A few miles away from Sélibaby, on a dirt road dotted with goats, lies the village of Bouroudji, home to 11 of the missing young men. AP reporters shared the available information with their mothers: A Mauritanian boat had drifted to Tobago with 14 bodies. One phone retrieved from the boat was linked to the group their sons had traveled with. There were no known survivors.

“They’re all dead,” one mother exclaimed. She covered her face with her hands and left in despair.

Others hung onto hope. Until they saw their sons’ bodies, the mothers said, they could still be alive. They pulled out their cellphones and shared photos of their sons with AP. Among them were two young men named Bayla Niang and Abdoulaye Tall.

Niang’s father, 71-year-old Ciré Samba Niang, said they were desperate for any information.

“There’s people who say they’ve died. There are people who say they are in prison,” he said. “There are others who say, nonsense.”

Niang said he wasn’t aware of his son’s plans. He blamed local unemployment along with better opportunities abroad. Many in his generation had also moved to Europe and made good money for Mauritanian standards.

“If one goes to Europe, in one or two years they’ll be able to build a house (in Mauritania), to buy a car,” Niang said. “The other person sees that and says, ‘I can’t stay here. I have to go, too.’”

A man relaxing on a field of green.

In the nearby village of Moudji, the parents of Soulayman Soumaré and his cousins Houdou Soumaré and Djibi Koumé, who had also disappeared, struggled to get on with their lives. One mother was severely depressed and suffering from panic attacks, the villagers said. “You cannot even talk because everyone is so upset,” said Oumar Koumé, the father of Djibi Koumé.

Like the mothers of Bouroudji, Koumé asked to see the bodies found in the boat that reached Tobago.

“If you see someone is dead in front of you, you know it is done. But if you don’t see it, every day there are rumors,” he said. “Your heart aches.”

Adama Sarré is a 46-year-old nurse and single mother. Her 25-year-old son, Cheikh Dioum, is among those who disappeared.

An introvert, Dioum would sometimes stay in his room for days, his mother said. He was upset, frustrated. He had repeatedly asked her for money to travel to Europe. But on her meager nurse’s salary, she had little to give him. She advised patience. She recalled telling him: “Cheikh, go slowly, go slowly. If I work and find money, I will get you a plane ticket and you will go.”

Dioum thought she was lying, she said. He left without saying goodbye.

“I call his phone, it doesn’t work,” she said. “I’m just sitting here.”

A woman in a red dress looks at the camera with a serious expression.

A Survivor’s Account

We may never know what happened to the men as they drifted from Nouadhibou to Tobago. But accounts from survivors of other shipwrecks in the Atlantic offer a clue.

Moussa Sako was rescued by the Spanish Air Force on April 26, 2021. Their boat was spotted by chance more than 310 miles (500km) from the Spanish island of El Hierro — “in the middle of nowhere,” as one of the rescuers described it.

They had set off 22 days earlier from Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. Only three of 63 people who boarded survived.

Like many on the boat, Sako, an asylum-seeker from Mali, had never seen the ocean. Four men with maritime experience, including a Senegalese “captain,” were in charge of reaching the Canaries. The voyage was to take four to five days.

They were packed like sardines, with Sako squeezed in the middle. The leaking gasoline and salt water in the bottom of the boat burnt their skin, making it painful to sit.

Not long after departing, they ran out of food and water. On the fourth day they ran out of fuel. To slow down their drift and be more visible to rescuers, they made a makeshift anchor by tying the engine and other heavy metal scraps to a rope.

With each day that passed, the boat drifted further. Tensions boiled into arguments. The smugglers, some said, had betrayed them.

More days passed. No rescue came. A growing number of people wanted to cut the rope loose to drift faster. Sako thought they would be better off staying still, where the sea was still calm and they could see some lights at night. But Sako was defeated in a vote. The rope was snipped.

Just as he feared, the wind took them to more agitated waters that poured over their boat. The next evening the first person died, a 20-year-old man. They washed and wrapped his body in Islamic tradition and prayed before throwing it overboard.

By the second week, three to four people were dying every day.

Some had hallucinations. One man jumped to his death thinking they had arrived. Others jumped to end their suffering. Sako, the healthiest, tried to help the others.

“I had four full (layers of clothes) on me,” he recalled. “I would take one off and put it on them ... until I had only one.”

On day 18, he tried to get away from the rotting bodies. But they were everywhere. Only a handful of people were still alive. They hardly spoke.

Sako no longer feared death. He did worry about what would happen afterward.

“I wanted that even if I died, for people to recover (my body) and bury me,” Sako said. “If you disappear in the water, they can look for you for a hundred years.”

Finally, on day 22, a grey plane appeared in the sky above. Then came a helicopter. A rescuer dropped down and pulled Sako and the other two survivors from the corpse-ridden pirogue.

The bodies of 24 people were recovered and buried in the Canaries with case numbers instead of names. The remains of the other 36 were swallowed by the Atlantic.

A small pile of weather-beaten boats.

(Partial) Answers

The number of people attempting the Atlantic crossing to the Canaries is falling again as Spain and the EU, with help from their African partners, try to close that migration route in a constant cat-and-mouse game. But the reasons pushing these men, women and children to go — a lack of jobs, poverty, violence, climate change — have only gotten worse.

One year after the 43 men departed Nouadhibou, the white-and-blue boat sat abandoned on the side of the road in Belle Garden, much like the case itself.

The clothing, objects and cellphones recovered from the boat and the bodies had been kept in the back of the Scarborough police station in Tobago. Even though it had been cleared for disposal, the officer in charge of storing police evidence had decided to hold onto the items “in case someone came looking for this some day.”

With latex gloves, the officer and an AP reporter cut open the sealed bags, pulling out the decaying evidence on the concrete floor to be documented.

There were the dirty soccer jerseys and shorts of Juventus, Paris St-Germain, Barcelona, Real Madrid and The Football Federation of Mauritania that Burris had noted in her autopsy reports. There were the dark green weatherproof coats and pants so many migrants wear during the crossing. There were the cellphones, so worn out that the devices fell apart at the slightest touch.

After days analyzing photos of the evidence like a puzzle, one T-shirt seemed familiar. In a photo shared by one of the mothers from the Mauritanian village of Bourdouji, 20-year-old Abdoulaye Tall is seen wearing a colorful T-shirt with words on it, but only parts of it were visible: “IS IT ... E ... YOU’RE.”

Suddenly, it came into focus. He was wearing the shirt that had struck Dr. Burris: “HELLO, IS IT ME YOU’RE LOOKING FOR?”

The AP shared its finding, along with photos of the T-shirt, with Tall’s father. He said he was grateful for the information, even though it shattered his hopes.

“It’s obvious he’s dead,” Djibi Tall said. “It’s God’s will.”

The AP also shared photos of the evidence collected in Tobago with other families of the missing in Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and France.

May Sow, the aunt in France, stared at the photos on her phone for days and stayed up late at night. One photo looked familiar: a black striped button-down shirt.

She went back to photos of her nephew from shortly before he disappeared. There it was — the same black striped shirt. He wore it on special occasions.

“I don’t think they had the right to bring things with them, so he must have worn his best clothes,” she said.

She reached out to one of Alassane’s friends in Mauritania who had accompanied him on the first part of the journey to the boat. He confirmed that Alassane had worn the striped shirt underneath a jacket with red pockets. Both were found on one of the bodies.

May Sow was already mourning the loss of her nephew, but her sister was still in denial. Sow reached out to the Red Cross in Senegal for help with a DNA test to confirm. But because Alassane’s mother was from Mali, they couldn’t help.

So in late June, the AP got a saliva sample sent from Alassane’s mother to the Forensics Science Center in Trinidad and Tobago.

Three months later, on Oct. 4, 2022, an email arrived in May Sow’s inbox.

“I regret to inform that the DNA sample result is a positive match.”

A beach with palm trees at dawn.

Alassane was buried after an Islamic funeral on March 3, 2023, at the Chaguanas Public Cemetery in Trinidad and Tobago. His family, unable to travel, held prayers in both his hometown in Mali and in France.

Of the 43 people believed to have boarded Alassane’s boat, only 14 bodies and skeletal remains were found in Tobago. The Red Cross has collected 51 DNA samples from family members of 26 missing migrants in hopes of identifying the other bodies at the Forensic Science Center in Trinidad. Those results aren’t yet known.

Some things are, in the end, unknowable. It’s possible — probable, even — that the world will never learn what exactly happened during the 135 days and nights that Alassane and the others spent adrift in the Atlantic.

But at least May Sow knows one thing now.

“At least, for my nephew, we have proof that it is him,” she said. “We can pray for him and believe that he is in a good place.”

More in this project

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10 Tales of Legendary Ghost Ships

By bess lovejoy | jul 3, 2015 | updated: nov 2, 2021, 2:00 pm edt.

shaunl/iStock via Getty Images

The sea can be a haunted place. Maritime lore is rife with stories about ghost ships , whether they’re at-sea apparitions that bewilder viewers before vanishing into thin air, or mysterious vessels found sailing the oceans with no one aboard.

The most famous ship in the latter category is likely the Mary Celeste , discovered adrift near the Azores in 1872 without a soul in sight. Its story has continued to fascinate, helped along in part by Arthur Conan Doyle 's 1884 short story "J. Habakuk Jephson's Statement."

But while explanations connected to ships like the Mary Celeste will be endlessly debated, ghostly ship apparitions belong to a different realm—one of the imagination. And while plausible scientific explanations have been put forth to explain these sighting and the legends around them—from optical illusions to rotting vegetation—it can sometimes be fun to consider these tales just for themselves, and their ability to captivate our imaginations.

1. Flying Dutchman

The story usually goes something like this: An anxious captain paces the deck of his massive ship as it struggles against a storm, vowing to pass the Cape of Good Hope whatever the cost. A mysterious voice hears his oath and, as punishment for his recklessness to the crew, condemns him to sail the seas around the cape for eternity, his glowing ship serving as a warning to other mariners of bad weather and the cost of hubris.

First noted in the late 18th century, the legend of Flying Dutchman is the most famous story of a phantom vessel in European and American lore. It has inspired the imaginations of Washington Irving, Richard Wagner, Sir Walter Scott, and many others. The earliest accounts describe the apparition in connection with the crew of a Dutch ship lost off the Cape of Good Hope in a storm or due to disease, perhaps as punishment for some kind of horrible crime. An 1821 account in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine introduced the name Captain Hendrick Vanderdecken, said to have sworn an oath vowing to pass the Cape in a storm even if it meant eternal damnation.

Sightings of the Flying Dutchman (the name can refer to both the ship and its captain) have continued into the 19th and 20th centuries. Even the future King George V described seeing a ship glowing with a “strange red light” off the coast of Australia in 1881. In March 1939, about a dozen people claimed to have seen the vessel off the coast of South Africa. During World War II, German Admiral Karl Dönitz said that members of the crew of one of his U-boats had seen the Dutchman while patrolling off Cape Town.

Some reports mention a crew of skeletons dancing in the rigging. Others warn that the ship has the ability to lure other vessels onto the rocks— supposedly the captain is jealous of other ships who might pass the cape, and will do everything in his power to prevent them, whether that means spoiling their food or ensuring their death in a storm.

2. Baron Falkenberg

Germany’s North Sea is haunted by the legend of the medieval Baron Falkenberg, whose story is said to begin when his long-lost brother returned home rich and planned to marry a village maiden that the baron himself had his eye on. At the wedding feast, the plentiful food and champagne temporarily soothed the baron’s soul. But not for long—according to one telling, the baron’s brother “touched him up in the wrong place," whereupon the baron picked up a champagne bottle and bashed his brother over the head. The groom fell down dead, and his bride ran screaming into the room. The baron tried to convince her of his love, but she declared she would rather die than accept him. The baron took her declaration literally and stabbed a knife into her heart. Then the baron fled to the beach, where he found a boat and a man who stood up and said "The captain has been expecting you." The baron got into the boat, which took him to a gray ship, and he hasn’t disembarked for 600 years.

Those who have seen the baron’s vessel say it’s always heading north, without helm or helmsmen, and that the masthead flickers with a blue flame—illuminating the sight of the baron on deck, playing dice with the devil for control of his soul.

To make the story even more meta, some historians say it may be connected to a Norse saga in which a Viking sea captain named Stotte stole a magic ring from the gods. As punishment, Stotte was transformed into a living skeleton covered in fire, and condemned to spend the rest of eternity affixed to the mast of a ghostly, black-hulled longship.

3. Yellow Jack

Another centuries-old ghost ship tale concerns a vessel laden with gold and spices that was once preparing to leave the Indies. Before departing, the ship took on an unsavory character known only as "Yellow Jack." Apparently, his reputation was so bad the ship was forbidden to enter any port she called upon, forcing the vessel to endlessly cruise the seas. Eventually, the crew went mad and murdered each other. Some say the ship is still sailing, crewed by the ghosts of the dead sailors, forever searching for a port she can enter.

The story may have historical origins connected to shipborne diseases: “yellow jack” is another name for yellow fever, which spread frequently on Atlantic vessels , and the "yellow jack" was historically the flag flown by a ship infected with the plague, cholera, or similar deadly contagion . It seems likely that the unsavory “Yellow Jack” was not so much a person as a pathogen.

4. The Caleuche

The waters around Chile's Chiloe Island are known for terrible storms, and for sightings of the Caleuche —a demon ship with luminescent white sides and blood-red sails. More than just your average ghost ship, the Caleuche is a sentient being who can glide across the surface of the water at impossible speeds or dive beneath it like a whale. Observers say that when it passes, you can hear the cackling of its demon crew, who hop around on one leg and have faces that spin backwards. The ship is also crewed by sailors both dead and alive, either dragged from the deep or stolen from passing ships. However, the Caleuche only has use for the officers it finds, and spills the others—driven half-insane—onto local beaches. In other versions of the tales about the ship, it is piloted by the souls of the drowned. Merchants who trade with the boat become suddenly wealthy, while those who see it supposedly wear crooked smiles forever.

5. Lady Lovibond

The Goodwin Sands, off the coast of Kent in southeast England, is famous for a number of shipwrecks, and for several ghost ship legends. The most notable concerns the Lady Lovibond , said to have been deliberately wrecked in the 18th century and to reappear as a phantom every 50 years on the anniversary of its destruction.

The story goes that a captain was celebrating his recent marriage with a voyage to Portugal in 1748, bringing his new wife, her mother, and various wedding guests aboard the ship. Unfortunately, the first mate had hoped to be the groom himself. While the wedding party drank toasts to the happy couple, the first mate felt his blood begin to boil. In a jealous rage, he grabbed a wooden pin and struck the helmsman, killing him. Then he drove the schooner directly onto the Goodwin Sands, wrecking the boat and killing everyone aboard.

Supposedly, the glowing ship has reappeared to reenact the crash in 1798, 1848, and 1948, when she reportedly gave off a strange green glow. Locals have even set out to rescue survivors, only to discover the sands are bare.

6. The Palatine Light

If you ever find yourself near Rhode Island's Block Island during the quiet week between Christmas and New Years, try gazing out into the water at night. Supposedly, you just might see an 18th century ship blazing against the darkness. The apparition is known as the Palatine , or the Palatine Light, and it’s one of America’s best-known ghost ship legends.

While there’s no record of any ship known as the Palatine wrecking in the area, folklorists believe the story might be based on the sad story of another ship. In 1738, the Princess Augusta ran aground on Block Island carrying a load of German Palatines seeking a new life of religious freedom in America. A deposition taken from the crew (though only rediscovered in 1925) recounted that a "fever and flux" had killed many of the passengers and crew, and the acting captain refused to let the starving, shivering passengers go ashore.

While little else is known for sure about the wreck, a story developed over the next century saying that the Block Islanders had lured the ship onto the shoals so they could salvage its contents, then murdered the remaining passengers and burned the ship to conceal their crime. That version of events was enshrined in John Greenleaf Whittier's 1867 poem "The Palatine," which appeared in The Atlantic Monthly and made the story famous.

However, Whittier's version was far different from the one that developed among the Block Islanders, who emphasized their kindness in saving the shipwrecked passengers and nursing them back to health. One historian, Samuel Livermore, blamed the more troubling version of events, and the story of the ghostly apparition, on a notorious local woman known as ''Dutch Kattern," a survivor who stayed on the island and became known as a witch. According to Livermore , Kattern “had her revenge on the ship that put her ashore by imagining it on fire, and telling others, probably, that the light on the sound was the wicked ship Palatine , cursed for leaving her on Block Island." Whether Kattern was responsible for the idea or not, locals continue to insist that many have seen the ship shining at night during that one week each year.

7. Ghost Ship of Northumberland Strait

Since the late 18th century, people have reported seeing a ghostly three-masted schooner on fire in Canada’s Northumberland Strait, the body of water that separates Prince Edward Island from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Sightings seem to occur most often in the fall; some are reported as lasting just a few minutes, while others say they've seen the illusion last as long as an hour. In some cases, would-be rescuers have tried to sail out to help those on board, only to watch the ship vanish as they come close. The story gained popularity after being immortalized in local singer-songwriter Lennie Gallant’s song, " Tales of the Phantom Ship ." On Friday, June 13, 2014, Canada Post even launched a postage stamp depicting the ship as part of a "haunted Canada" line.

8. Gardiner's Bay Phantoms

On March 18, 1754, the New York Gazette published a letter written by a group of men from Plum Island, on Long Island's far eastern end, who had been fishing for menhaden in nearby Gardiner's Bay when they saw three ghostly ships. The ships were apparently so close the men could see the sailors walking about on deck. The trio of ships fought a gun battle among themselves for about 15 minutes before silently fading away. More than a century later, in 1882, the New York Sun ran a letter from a menhaden fisherman who also had a spectral tale to tell about Gardiner's Bay. Supposedly, the letter writer had been sleeping on deck when he was awoken by a distraught-looking first mate, who claimed that a giant schooner had appeared out of the darkness heading straight for their boat. Just as it looked like it was about to hit the boat, it dissolved. One theory offered for the sight, and published in Scientific American , argued that the oily menhaden had somehow produced a glow that mirrored the schooner itself.

9. Fireship of Chaleur Bay

According to the city of Bathurst , in New Brunswick, Canada, tens of thousands of people have seen the apparition of a ship that appears to be on fire cruising Chaleur Bay, located between New Brunswick and Quebec. The apparition usually appears at night, sometimes hovering for hours in a single spot and other times skimming across the waves. Viewing it by telescope brings out no details. Scientists have explained the sight, which continues to be seen today, as being caused by St. Elmo's Fire (an electricity phenomenon), inflammable gas released beneath the sea, or phosphorescent marine life. Locals have connected the story to various shipwrecks in the region, including the story of a Portuguese captain who abused local Indians. One woman on Heron Island, a Mrs. Pettigrew, even reported being approached by the specter of a burned sailor who came to her farm house for help. When she turned to rush inside, it brushed past her and she discovered the figure was legless.

10. SS Valencia

It's been called the worst disaster in the "Graveyard of the Pacific," a treacherous stretch of coastal water from Oregon to Vancouver Island. On January 22, 1906, the Valencia , a coastal passenger liner en route from San Francisco to Seattle via Victoria, snagged on a submerged reef on the southwest coast of Vancouver Island. Would-be rescuers were thwarted by the jagged, uncharted rocks and a fierce storm, and many lifeboats capsized in the roiling waters. For 36 hours, scores of passengers clung to the deck or the rigging, enduring a series of strategic errors by rescuers and crew. Finally, a giant wave swept most of them out to sea. Only 37 of the 136 passengers survived, and all of the ship's women and children perished. An investigation into the disaster resulted in the creation of the Pachena Point Lighthouse and a life-saving trail for shipwrecked mariners, which later became the West Coast Trail.

Several strange occurrences have been reported in connection with the disaster. Some onboard another nearby ship reported seeing an image of the Valencia take shape in the exhaust cloud formed by the rescue ship City of Topeka , which managed to save some survivors. For years afterward, sailors on the west coast of Vancouver Island reported seeing a phantom Valencia foundering on the waves, its terrified passengers and crew still holding on for dear life. There were also reports of Indian fisherman discovering a lifeboat either crewed by skeletons and on the water, or filled with skeletons and mysteriously hidden inside a cave. But perhaps most incredible of all is the fact that the Valencia ’s lifeboat No. 5 was found drifting in Barkley Sound in 1933, still in decent condition 27 years after the disaster. Part of the lifeboat later went on display at the Maritime Museum in Victoria, B.C.

This story originally ran in 2015; it has been updated for 2021.

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